John Clayton:

The Cowboy Girl: Complete Source Citations

The Life of Caroline Lockhart

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The Cowboy Girl is a work of non-fiction. All its characters are real; nothing has been disguised or embellished. Where I have used dialogue, it is based on the recollection of at least one participant, as documented in the endnotes.

But how do you balance brevity and precision? As I cut material out of the endnotes, figuring that few readers would want to slog all the way through them, I vowed to put the complete source citations up on the website, for researchers who wanted to further pursue any of the topics I addressed.

So here are those notes. They're best used in conjunction with the printed bibliography in the published book, which fleshes out some of these "short cites" (for example, giving the full names of the Dominick and Guthrie documents cited in the Prologue). Following the notes are a list of additional sources -- not mentioned in the book's bibliography -- that might also be of interest. Page numbers refer to the December 2005 manuscript, so won't correspond to the published pages (sorry). Any questions, please feel free to email me at info at johnclaytonbooks. com


BBHC: Buffalo Bill Historical Center, Cody, Wyo.

BCNRA: Bighorn Canyon National Recreation Area, Lovell, Wyo.

BP: Boston Post

CE: Cody Enterprise, including the Park County Enterprise prior to 1921 (at PCL, PCHA and/or BBHC).

CL: Caroline Lockhart

CLC: Caroline Lockhart Collection, American Heritage Center, University of Wyoming, Laramie, Wyo. Box numbers are prefaced by 1: or 2: because there are two accessions of Lockhart materials.

Diaries: Caroline Lockharts diaries. The originals are at CLC; photocopies at LFC, and a brief typed transcription in the Lucille Patrick files at PCHA. Most though by no means all of the diaries are excerpted in Hicks, Lockhart.

ES: Eskridge Star, complete with index at the Eskridge (Kan.) Public Library

JAP: Jay Adler Papers, MHS

KSHS: Kansas State Historical Society archives, Topeka, Kan.

LFC: Lockhart-Furman Collection, BBHC, Cody, Wyo.

MHS: Montana Historical Society Library, Helena, Mont.

OCC: Osage County Chronicle (Kansas, at KSHS)

OCP: Ogle County Press (Illinois, at the Polo Public Library, Polo, Ill.)

PB: Philadelphia Bulletin

PCHA: Park County Historical Archives, Cody, Wyo.

PCL: Park County Library, Cody, Wyo.

SG: Sterling Gazette (Illinois, at SPL)

SPL: Sterling Public Library, Sterling, Ill.



1     sublimity     Swift Current Courier 9/1/00, MHS. Richest and biggest is from the same source.

5     across the summit     Altyn, Dupuyer Acantha 8/29/01, MHS.

7     spry old man     CL, untitled ms. quoted on Dominick 14. This old-age memoir is not entirely reliable; for example, nowhere else is McNeill called Sourdough Sam. It may have been her pet nickname for him, or it may have been a detail she later fabricated to improve the story.

7     rough trail     CL, A Girl in the Rockies, Lippincotts 8/02, p. 187.

7     Thars yer trail     A Girl in the Rockies 188.

8     Park Service materials     Granite Park Chalet Guest Information. I made this trip in September, 2003.

9     long-legged sorrel     CL, untitled ms. quoted on Dominick 16. Subsequent quotes in this section are from the same source; my experience on the trail suggests her account is perhaps overdramatized but basically true. For example, for horses slipping over cliffs, see Guthrie 81.


Born on a Horse

12     Joe Lockhart      Carroll County real estate records, Mt. Carroll Ill.; Ogle County real estate records, Oregon, Ill.; Papa and his prodigal photo reproduced in Furman; Muster and Descriptive Rolls, Seventh Illinois Cavalry, Company B, Illinois State Archives; Thiem 137.

13     During the decade      Worster 52.

14     property      1870 Carroll County census (p. 96), Lanark Public Library, Lanark, IL.

14     Sarah gave birth     Caroline always gave her birthplace as Eagle Point, which is the name of the Woodruffs neighborhood. So she may have been born at her mothers parents house rather than her own parents house a few miles away in Elkhorn Grove; nevertheless, Eagle Point and Elkhorn Grove are basically the same neighborhood separated only by a county line. No record of the birth exists, and Hicks suggests Lockhart was born in 1870. But the 1870, 75, and 80 census data back up Lockharts claim that she was born in 1871.

14     the sawmill burned     Theim 137.

16     An 1875 censustaker     1875 Kansas census, vol. 56 p. 10, at KSHS. It lists Cary, age 4.

17     largest mule in the state     OCC, 2/7/78.

17     an idyllic time     West, Growing; Kathryn Adam in Armitage and Jameson 95.

18     I was born on a horse.     Vern Spencer, quoted on Culpin 1.

18     A childrens party     OCC, 3/6/79.

18     homestead records dont really support     Kansas tract books, KSHS. The barely-legible records appear to indicate that this plot was homesteaded in the 1850s.

19     Youth Temperance Alliance     OCC 11/28/78 and 12/12/78.

20     terms and prices reasonable     OCC 5/20/80. Also 1/15/80, 4/15/80, 5/6/80, 10/28/80, 12/30/80.

20     Our earliest recollection of Cad     Burlingame Enterprise, 5/16/12, provided by Linda Fagan.

20     I lived in a Western town     CL, My First Proposal, BP undated CLC 2:6.

21     Anglo-Texan cattle ranchers     Jordan 267-75.

23     The Homestead Act of 1862     Worster 338-9; also Meinig 164-7, Malin xii, Bowden 194-6, Wrobel Promised 53-8.

24     Whos that boy     CL, My First Proposal. Since Lockhart was writing for entertainment, this account is probably not the strict truth. (For example, she claims she was 13, but at that age her school was in Illinois, not Kansas.) But she was in her mid-20s when she wrote it, close enough in time to have accurately remembered numerous details.

27     care about anything but horses      CL, The Man from the Bitter Roots 12-13.

28     paperback novels     Sullivan 210-216, Johnson 501, Slotkin Gunfighter 145, Slotkin Fatal 87 & 307, Etulain Telling.

29     If you wear that thing     CL, untitled memoir, LFC box 1.

29     thought the frontier no place     Adler ms., JAP folder 7.

30     Bayliss     Wallace 1385; Gale. Clara Bayliss went on to write childrens books (including Lolami, the Little Cliff Dweller) set in the West. Though Lockhart surely must have known Clara Bayliss, sadly Lockharts reminiscences do not discuss Bayliss influence.

30     a natural writer.     Ward; Bayliss notebooks 178 & 250, Sterling Historical Museum, Sterling Ill.

30     nose for news,     Famous Author

31     What a thrill     Famous Author

31     Your father is seldom home     Famous Author

31     An 1885 state census     1885 Kansas census, Burlingame p. 50, at KSHS. Sterling directory 1883 and 87-88, at SPL.

32     Captain Mortlake      Sagala 242-7. Sagala also discusses the troupes 1882 schedule (345) and Codys acting background (38-52). I believe Lockhart saw Cody in 1882 because this is the first year she is known to have been in Illinois, and the Sterling Gazette 9/14/82 noted Codys presence in the city (though he was probably just passing through on a train, the notice would have built interest in the nearby shows). She might also have seen the troupe in Topeka in October, 1881, or in tours through Illinois and Iowa 1883-6.

33     indulgence of intoxicants.     Janesville (Wis.) Daily Gazette, 9/1/82, quoted in Sagala 243.

34     Imagine Julius Caesar     Sagala 67

36     Bethany College     Mrs. Augustus Wilson; Greene. Remember the name ProutyLockhart did.

36     Sarah Lockhart developed a fever     OCP, 9/15/88; OCC, 9/6/88

37     Caroline would claim      CL, untitled memoir, CLC 1:10 folder 4.

37     Few knew she was ill     OCC 9/6/88.

38     January 3, 1889     OCC, 10/4/88 and 1/3/89.

38     My feet sunk deep     CL, untitled memoir, CLC 1:10 folder 4.

38     out-size calaboose.     CL, untitled memoir, CLC 1:10 folder 4.

39     The Moravian Seminary      Moravian Seminary catalog, 1889. Italics in original.

39     The girls I met     CL, untitled memoir, CLC 1:10 folder 4.

40     Augusta Packer     CL, untitled memoir, CLC 1:10 folder 4; Ava Bretzik (Asa Packer Mansion Museum, Jim Thorpe, PA) personal communications, 4/2004.

41     with cousins and aunts     My First Proposal; Moss; Ferguson.

41     Sa-ay, do you know     My First Proposal.

42     I learned to make Vassar fudge      CL, untitled memoir, CLC 1:9, also quoted in Furman 8.

42     keep us out of the poor house.     CL, untitled memoir, CLC 1:10 folder 4.

43     I opened the letter      CL, untitled memoir, CLC 1:10 folder 4.

44     Their wedding was a brief,     SG 3/14/90.

44     and with a childs intuition      CL, untitled memoir, CLC 1:10 folder 4.

44     Mrs. J.C. Lockhart.     ES, 12/16/37 in CLC 2:6.


Stunt Girl

46     There is not a city     CL, The Boston Girls Innocent Bohemia, BP 3/1/1896, CLC 2:4. Subsequent quotes in this section are from the same source.

49     My enthusiasm for a career      CL, untitled memoir, in CLC 1:10. Closser had a long stage career, see (accessed 5/5/05).

50     it was clear      CL, untitled memoir, in CLC 1:10.

50     Rosedale     CLC 2:6. Though the clipping is undated, it must be 1894 because it refers to Friday, Jan. 12. The play opened in Boston in May, 1893 (Rosedale at Grand Opera House, Boston Herald 5/30/93, Harvard Theater Collection, Cambridge, Mass.).

51     came out of clear sky     CL, untitled memoir, in CLC 1:10, folder 6.

51     Nellie Bly was making      CL, untitled memoir, in CLC 1:10, folder 4. It may be that Lockhart minimized her years in the theater to imply that shed been directly inspired by Blys famous trip, rather than entering the field five years later.

51     A newspaper of the early 1890s     Kroeger, Teachout, Ross.

52     Edwin Grozier     Staples 11-18.

52     girl reporter Nellie Bly     Kroeger.

54     February 11, 1894     BP, Boston Public Library.

54     Cub in,     CL, Stage-struck girls, BP undated, CLC 2:6. Subsequent quotes in this section are from the same source, with original spellings. Most of the clippings in Lockharts scrapbooks lack dates, and the 1890s Post is not indexed, so I have made my best guess as to the order of their publication.

58     Fancy Slippers and Shoes     CLC 2:6. The clippings are undated, but clearly disprove the stories Lockhart told in her late-life memoirs about getting the job based on a single interview.

59     Her stunts included     All of the articles mentioned in these two paragraphs are collected in CLC 2:4 and 2:6.

59     If the boat had not been     CL, A Sail boat during a blizzard, BP undated, CLC 2:4.

60     I felt very happy and important     CL, untitled memoir, in CLC 1:10, folder 4, p. 23.

60     how their relationship started     CL, untitled memoir, in CLC 1:10, folder 4, p. 23; MCoys Fight undated, unsourced, CLC 2:4; First of the Season undated, unsourced, CLC 2:4.

60     McKenzie     A.C. MKenzie, writer, dead unsourced, undated (1908?) clip in CLC 2:5. Also Ellen E. Knight (Winchester, Mass., historical society), personal correspondence, 1/10/2003.

60     Hunting for the Festive Rabbit      CL, Hunting for the Festive Rabbit, undated, unsourced, CLC 2:4. Subsequent quotes in this section are from the same source.

61     William Woods      Apologize! and Woods is Sorry BP undated, CLC 2:6. Subsequent quotes in this section are from the same sources.

62     Champion Fat Boy of the World     CL, Champion Fat Boy of the World, undated, unsourced, CLC 2:4.

63     freaks on display at a museum     CL, Museum Boardinghouse undated BP CLC 2:4. In her late-life memoirs Lockhart claimed, incorrectly, that this assignment served as a sort of interview/test for Post employment. Indeed the memoir accountwhich has been widely retold as indicative of her journalism careercontains several fabrications and omits the very empathy that strikes me as the articles best quality.

64     Buffalo Bill     CL, She Rides a Broncho, undated, unsourced, CLC 2:6. Subsequent quotes in this section are from the same source. It must be 1895 because Cody was in New Hampshire on July 4, 1895: see notes on photo NS-227 in the Denver Public Library.

65     now only in the South     Quoted in Garceaus essay in Basso, 163. See also Frantz & Choate, and Etulains Wister.

68     Naskeag Point     CL, Lost in the Fog, Sunday Post, 7/7/1895, CLC 2:6. Subsequent quotes in this section are from the same source. The story is probably exaggerated (did she really land back on the same island after 20 minutes?), but the memory of being lost in the fog lasted like truth: she covered it again in her old-age memoir. Not surprisingly the details in the contemporaneous version are richer.

69     Bar Harbor     CL, untitled memoir, in CLC 1:10, folder 6, pp. 30-33. Naskeag Point is the next big peninsula southeast of Bar Harbor.

71     furriner     CL, untitled memoir, in CLC 1:10, folder 6, p. 31. Sadly, she never tried her hand at capturing a DownMaine accent.

71     He is thinking of his life     CL, Her Bucking Broncho, BP undated (but datelined Naskeag Point July 20), CLC 2:6. In the memoir she claims Buffalo Bill gave her the horse in appreciation for her story; the article says she bought it. In the article, she and Kid travel by boat to Naskeag, though her memoirs dont mention Kid, and say she took the train. The detail in the article makes me believe its largely true, though she never again mentions owning a horse back East.

73     bored but unable      Kroeger 250. See also 180-192 and 223-4.

73     There is no vocation     Cahoon. Subsequent quotes in this section are from the same source. To me, Cahoons article reads as if she relied entirely on a single stunt girl.

75     money ran out     Letter, John E. Wilkie to CL, 7/5/00, CLC 1:6.

75     Mexico     Hicks 14-16.

75     Vance Galloway     CLC 1:5. Vance Galloway (1858-1941) was a county clerk in Transylvania county, NCsee  (accessed 5/5/05). Remember the nameLockhart did.

75     Labrador     Dominick 14, Furman 18-19.

75     Hillsboro     CL, 1898 diaries, CLC 1:17. The Watchman was the Boston Baptist newspaper where McKenzie had started his career.

76     her later diaries      CL, Diaries 2/25/29.

77     Ava Willing      CL, untitled memoir, in CLC 1:10. See also Dominick 11-13; Furman 22-23; (accessed 5/5/05).

79     correct, conservative, and noncommittal     Ross 518.

79     the maddest, gladdest,     Mencken Days ix. See also Teachout 46-51.

80     Dora Cooperstein     CL, A young girl under a spell PB undated, CLC 2:4

82     My dear newsboys     CL, My Dear Newsboys PB undated, CLC 2:4.

82     advice column     Ross, 79-82. See also Kroeger, 459.

82     any time that you are out     CL in PB, 2/13/03, CLC 2:4.

83     William Jennings Bryan      CL, Suzette Makes the Trip Through Delaware with William Jennings Bryan CLC 2:4.

83     cigar factory      CL, Suzette Trying Her Hand at Cigarmaking; Finds It Rather Pleasant Than Otherwise PB undated, CLC 2:5.

84     Suzettes Stories of Everyday Life     CLC 2:5.

85     She had just arrived in Paris     CL, Suzette Finds Paris and Parisians Not All Her Fond Fancy Painted, PB, 7/14/00, CLC 2:4. Subsequent quotes in this section are from the same source.

86     Ferdinand Peck     CL, Suzette sees the Lafayette statue unveiled by Americans in Paris, undated but datelined Paris July 5, CLC 2:4.

87     Oberammergau     CL, Suzette sees the passion play and admires its fervent dignity, undated but datelined Oberammergau July 23, CLC 2:4. Also CL, Suzette Takes a Plunge in the Surf In a Bathing Suit She Doesnt Approve Of, undated but datelined Ostend Sept. 13, CLC 2:5.

87     Casino de Paris     CL, Suzette has an experience with a typical Paris cabman, undated but datelined Paris Sept 8, CLC 2:4. Subsequent quotes in this section are from the same source. She wrote about the incident in many of her draft memoirs, with reduced detail and flavor.

88     1900 censustaker      Cited in Furman 21.

88     we had pigs feet     CL, The Sign that Failed undated, unsourced,  CLC 1:11.

89     There are women of brains and character     CL, Uncle Jerry Roths Bill to Tax Spinsters Arouses Indignation in True Womanly Hearts, undated, unsourced,  CLC 2:4.

89     Jack Painter     PCHA biographical files; Carrey and Conley; Hicks Park County Story 166

90     I have a plan      Undated note preserved in CLC 2:6

90     Walnuts and Wine     Various clips, CLC 2:4, 2:5, and 2:6. Though unsigned, the piece about Labrador has to be Lockharts; the others bear her style and have been pasted in her scrapbook.

91     Her Maiden Name     Lippincotts June 1901, 745-55, CLC 2:6. This was not literally Lockharts first published fiction, merely the first in such a major magazine. Her scrapbooks identify The Greengrocery Man, an 1893 sketch in a Boston magazine called The Orphans Bouquet as my first published story. Also, Minz note (below) references a story called The Alkahest, apparently published in some other magazine in February of 1900.

92     Minz      The letter is preserved in one of Lockharts scrapbooks, in CLC 2:6.

92     The Cowboy Girl     undated, unsourced, untitled clipping, CLC 2:4. The typeface resembles Lockharts Lippincotts clips.


Cowboy Novelist

93     A Girl in the Rockies     Lippincotts 08/02, CLC 1:5. Its difficult to analyze how much of this is fiction, since the points of comparison (Lockharts other accounts of her trip) also may be partially fictionalized. Lockhart herself may not have cared for the literal truth so much as she cared to equate horseback stories of adventure with the West.

93     not yet 60     Lockhart quoted in Dominick 15; St. Marys township 1900 census data, MHS; Swift Current Courier 9/1/00.

94     frontier     I am especially indebted to the work of Richard Slotkin. See Fatal and Gunfighter.

96     train robber     A Train Robber Makes a Call on Suzette in her Rocky Mountain Home, undated, unsourced,  but probably Lippincotts, CLC 2:4. Again its difficult to distinguish fact from fiction; I believe the cabin (see Guthrie 80) and dialogue were real, but the train robberies were not.

96     picture on a wall      Handwritten note (Dominick annotation) on Dominick 15.

97     Im going to see my grandma,     CL memoir quoted in Dominick 19-21. Suzette Visits Grandma Mountain Chicken, undated, unsourced, but probably Lippincotts, CLC 2:4, may be more accurate on the details.

97     symbolic baggage      Lamont Native American 385.

97     LaMott      Henry Paul Boyle (LaMotts grandson), personal communication, 9/25/03; Jack Holterman, Carrasco; Blackfeet Genealogy 402-4. Jennies father, John LaMott, part Mohawk and French originally from Oswego, New York, had met everyone from Abraham Lincoln to Charlie Russell to the outlaw Kid Curry. Her mother, Sally Carrasco, was of Blackfeet and Mexican descent. Spellings of LaMott and Carrasco vary.

98     Do they live     Suzette Visits Grandma Mountain Chicken.

99     fill an artist with delight     Suzette Visits Grandma Mountain Chicken. The article calls Jennie Louise, but it also appears to be using pseudonyms for Weasel Widow (Grandma Mountain Chicken) and Four Horns (Uncle Red Horns).

100     Straight as a String,     undated, unsourced,  CLC 1:5 (for the beginning of the story) and 1:6 (for the end). Yates Lockhart dates it as November 1902, as does a handwritten note on a 10/17/38 letter from New York researcher Morgan Cunnington, in CLC 1:9.

101     Edith Wharton and Willa Cather     Lamont Writing 87.

102     Local Notes     unsourced clippings, likely from CE, 10/19/04, from a scrapbook belonging to Agnes Chamberlain, quoted in Hicks 26 and Furman 37.

103     spent the winter     ES 4/13/05.

104     Cody     Furman 37-42; Hicks 26-33; Hicks Park County 15, 52; Patrick Three Women 1-11; Bonner.

105     a typically frontier town     CL, untitled memoir beginning It is now ancient history, CLC 1:10.

106     I like this country,     Young Wyoming Girl is Creator of Me-Smith, Denver Times May 18, 1912, quoted in Culpin 8 and Furman 41.

106     purchased a house     Hicks 27; Rosetta Greenfield, Lockhart House - Research 5/20/88 typescript in the Lockhart file, PCHA.

107     McKenzie moved on     The postcard is in CLC 2:5. His death is in A.C. MKenzie, writer, dead an undated, unsourced obituary in CLC 2:5. It must be 1908 because it says McKenzie was 37 and the Winchester Historical Society has records indicating he was born in 1871. The obituary also says McKenzie wandered half a dozen years in search of health to South Carolina, Wyoming, [and] New Mexico.

107     Suzette Tells about the Man Hunt     CL, Suzette Tells about the Man Hunt and Hold Up at Cody unsourced clipping datelined Philadelphia Nov 13, CLC 1:11. Furman 42-44 independently verifies factual details and pinpoints the date as Nov. 1, 1904. Subsequent quotes in this section are from the same source.

107     The artist, in the course     Mary Hallock Foote, quoted in Casey Bush, Artist-Author Mary Hallock Foote and her Angle of Repose Oregon Cultural Heritage Commission, 2003, (5/10/2005).

108     Suzette goes on a Hunt      CL, Suzette goes on a Hunt with Buffalo Bill, Philadelphia Press, 2/5/05, CLC 2:6. For resentment of Buffalo Bill, see Harvey 34 and the Northern Wyoming Daily News, 8/27/53, in JAP folder 6.

110     When Autymobile Struck Town     CL, When Autymobile Struck Town, Denver Times, April 10, no year given. PCL Lockhart vertical file; also reprinted in Hicks 34-36. Furman 178 identifies it as first appearing in the Philadelphia North American in 1905.

110     Mine Albert Heimer      Furman 44-5; Hicks 49. Albert Heimer was a real bartender who loved the publicity, highlighting this alter ego in advertising for his bar. The Old Cattleman was widely accepted to be perfect mimicry of a rancher named Sam Aldrich.

111     Daisy Beck     Beck files, PCHA. Lockhart, Lane, and three other women are pictured riding together in a CLC photograph reprinted in both Furman and Hicks.

111     1906     CE 6/14/06, quoted in Hicks 40.

112     They are all pretty good riders      Leaphart diary, 7/28/05, Montana Episodes: Wheelmen in Yellowstone, 1905 edited by Susan Leaphart, Montana: The Magazine of Western History 31(4) pp. 48-9.

113     The Second Star     CL,  The Second Star: A Mormon Story Lippincotts June, 1905, in CLC 1:5.

114     settings     See His Own Medicine, Lippincotts, 10/05 CLC 1:5; Docs Beau, The Railroad Mans Magazine, 10/06 CLC 1:5; The Woman Who Gave No Quarter, Lippincotts 2/07 CLC 1:5 and 1:11; Gustave Hinkle: Martyr, Lippincotts, 6/07 CLC 1:5; The Dude Wrangler, The Red Book Magazine, 11/07 CLC 1:5; The Pin-Head, Lippincotts 10/08 CLC 1:5; Stag Hound Bill Lippincotts, 3/05 and discussed on Yates Lockhart 11.

114     Docs Beau     Docs Beau, The Railroad Mans Magazine, 10/06 CLC 1:5.

115     The Woman Who Gave No Quarter     The Woman Who Gave No Quarter, Lippincotts 2/07 CLC 1:5 and 1:11.

116     John L. Smith     Billings (Mont.) Gazette, June 16 & 17, 1926, and Feb. 23, 1926. Diaries 2/25/29.

117     Cleaned up for a photograph     The photo, labeled in Lockharts handwriting Only known picture of Squaw Smith (Me-Smith), is in box 1 folder 15, LFC.

117       Smith is somewhere near      CL, Codys Bad Man Runs to Escape a Few Stones, undated, unsourced clipping, CLC 2:4. As literal nonfiction, the piece strains credulity; its likely one of Lockharts half-invented sketches. Subsequent quotes in this section are from the same source.

118     killed an unarmed man     John Clayton, The Trials of John L. Smith, Montana: The Magazine of Western History, fall 2004.

119     Me-Smith     See CLC 2:5, including New York Times 2/12/11.

119     Im a killer     CL, Me-Smith 17.

119     She sat her sturdy, spirited pony      CL, Me-Smith 20.

120     Say, girl     CL, Me-Smith 24-5.

120     New York Times      NYT 3/19/11, CLC 2:5. Though the clipping is undated, Furman 178 provides the date. New York Globe, 3/11/11, in CLC 2:5.

121     Owen Wister     Basso 1-6; Slotkin Gunfighter 83, 104, 156-60, 179; Johnson 497; Etulain Wister 33, Etulain Writing, Etulain Telling 77, Frantz 158.

123     Dora     CL, Me-Smith 64-5. See also Yates Lockhart 15-17.

124     Say, I can tie      CL, Me-Smith 100. The subsequent quotes are from pp. 113 (a-hatchin), 152 (laig), 114 (heterogeneity), 118 (plains), and 315 (died).

125     In fiction that country     Review of Reviews (New York), June 1911, in CLC 2:4.

125     However, in some wonderful way,     Birmingham News, 3/25/11, in CLC 2:5.

125     Hatin makes you smart     CL, Me-Smith 186. For mixed-blood heroines, see Yates Lockhart 17-18; the most famous was Helen Hunt Jacksons Ramona.

126     It is worth noticing     New York Tribune, 3/5/11, in CLC 2:5.

126     Bertha Muzzy Bower      I am especially indebted to the work of Victoria Lamont; see Writing 139-157. Also Engen; Davison; Houston. Engen (vii) makes the claim that publishers actively masked Bowers gender; later sources counter that it was not a cover-up. However, given contemporary critics reactions to Lockhart (frequently discussing her gender, without mentioning Bower), it seems to me that indeed the effect of Bowers publishers actions was widespread ignorance that she was a woman.

128     Mary Hallock Foote     Lamont, Writing 79-97; Miller.

128     In Exile,     Foote, In Exile, from In Exile, and Other Stories (1894) accessed at on 5/13/2005. Foote, Maverick, from The Cup of Trembling, and Other Stories (1895) accessed at on 5/11/2005.

129     Foote welcomed Wister      Lamont, Writing 114

129     The Rustler     Lamont, Writing 36-67; Frantz 161.

130     Popular magazine     Lamont, Writing 146-150 discusses Bower. For the 1919 publication of The Wolf Pack (an excerpt from The Fighting Shepherdess), Populars editors note read, We consider it an event when a novel of Caroline Lockharts comes into our hands. She is one of the few women who get our story angle, and she is one of the few writers of either sex with a strong sense of humor. In this novel she has set for herself a tremendous task  which we think she has achieved most creditably. Faint praise for an author with several bestsellers under her beltand it still doesnt legitimate her expertise.

130     Once upon a time     Boston Globe, undated clipping in CLC 2:5.The publicity photo is in the same scrapbook.

130     Denver Times     Young Wyoming Girl is creator of Me-Smith Denver Times undated (though Furman cites it as 5/18/12), CLC 2:5.

132     His escape from     Cole, D.W, 4/8/1908 letter to H.N. Savage, Department of Interior Supervising Engineer, copy in CLC 2:1. (Lockhart or a friend apparently retyped several letters so as to have a record of them.) Ferkos name is variously spelled Ferco, Furko, Marco, etc.

132     I say, What about the leg?     Marko Ferko Damage Suit, undated, unsourced clipping in CLC 2:6.

135     affidavits     The affidavits (including the darning needle quote) are quoted in Dominick Introduction 37-46 and summarized in Furman 53-58.

135       out for the stuff!     CL, Back of this petition& an undated, untitled, unsourced manuscript in CLC 2:1, which is surely Lockharts draft of the introductory material to the Denver News exposť. Furman 55 (Hering).

135     youngish and not ill-looking.     CL, untitled memoir, CLC 1:10, a page beginning It is now ancient history& For Lanes background, see her biographical file in PCHA and Cody Community Mourns Death of Pioneer and Physician, Dr. Frances M. Lane, an undated, unsourced obituary in CLC 2:6.

136     Before publishing      Copy of letter from the Mayor of Cody, Wyoming, to the Denver News 11/18/1907, typescript in CLC 2:1. I have fixed some misspellings in the unedited draft.

137     Billings (Mont.) Gazette     Patrick, Best Little 118. Though Patrick does not document the retraction nor indicate that Lockhart wrote the article, the S.L. Wiley letter cited below refers to a charge emanating from some inconscionable female as exhibited in the Billings Gazette. That has to be Lockhart.

138     John Wilkie     Letters from Wilkie, on federal letterhead, to CL, 2/19/08, 4/18/08, and 6/08, in CLC 1:6 and 2:1. (Furman cites them in 1:7.) He alludes to an attached report, but it is not with the other papers. See also Lockharts Almost 50 years later memoir in CLC 2:1.

138     reputation for surgical work.     D.W Cole, 4/8/08 letter to H.N. Savage, Department of Interior Supervising Engineer, copy in CLC 2:1.

139     never yet heard a single complaint     S.L. Wiley, 3/30/08 letter to J. Ahern, copy in CLC 2:1. See also Cole 4/8/08.

139     alleged troubles and dissatisfaction     Letter from Lane-Bradbury hospital, date obscured, copy in CLC 2:1.

139     whitewashed that pair      Diaries 1/9/33.

140     suing the Lane-Bradbury hospital     Doctors Face Damage Suit, unsourced clipping datelined Cody Feb. 7, CLC 2:6. It must be 1909 because the author refers to the 1908 government investigation in the past tense.

141     witnesses had left the country      Marko Ferko Damage Suit

141     For nearly two years     Doctors Face Damage Suit. Denoument is spelled that way in the original.

141     Scopes trial     Teachout 217-8

142     Yes, we went at night      Much Interest Is Shown, undated, unsourced clipping in CLC 2:6.

143     circulars were distributed      Unsourced, undated clippings, CLC 2:5. Also CE 6/25/09, quoted in Hicks 659-60.

144     No author to-day     untitled, undated, unsourced clipping, CLC 2:5.

144     The publication this Fall     Bookseller, Newsdealer, and Stationer, 10/1/12, CLC 2:5.

144     Dr. Harpe arose      CL, The Lady Doc 17-18.

144     abortion     Yates Gender 44.

145     Crowheart      CL, The Lady Doc 20.

145     There were no covert glances      CL, The Lady Doc 27. The following quotes are from pp. 27 (mediocre), 102 (eggs), 70 (church bells), 30 (hand over fist), 18 (Freoffs), 64 (Tisdale), 66 (lonesome as the deuce and Public Opinion), and 130-2 (Gussie).

146     satire      Teachout 177-8, Yates Lockhart 12.

148     first unambiguous delineation of a lesbian      Yates Lockhart 23-4.

149     homosexuality     DEmilio and Freedman 122-130; Boag.

150     a disappointing story     New York Life, 5/1/13; Detroit Journal, 12/6/12; New York Sun, 10/12/12; Philadelphia Press, 10/5/12; all in CLC 2:5.

151     One could get a fight     Hicks 48. CL memoir quoted in Dominick Introduction 45 (Jean dArc).

151     Cody newspapers      Park County Herald, 11/15/12; CE, 11/13/12 & 3/13/12, all in PCL.

154     Riders of the Purple Sage     Grey. Quotes from pp. 8 (gun-man), 9 (Maam), 10 (outgrowed), and 4 (grove).

155     formula     Slotkin Gunfighter 212-7, Tompkins 157-177, Gruber.

156     Let me out!     CL, The Full of the Moon, pp. 79-80. Subsequent: 8 (fling), 86 (coming), 87-8 (towering), 265-6 (typifies), 89 (plebian), 207 (greaser), 11-12 (sempstress).

158     she was a snob     Hicks 38.

160     The situations are impossible     Minneapolis Journal, 4/7/14, and Chicago Journal, 3/21/14 (charm), both in CLC 2:5

161      uncouth and disrespectful     Diaries 4/7/1898, CLC 1:17. The full context is: Mr. H came in for his coat. When he left he poked his finger under my chin and made a dab at my wishbone. I am displeased. It was at once uncouth and disrespectful. I am annoyed that I think about him but I do. He seems to fascinate me. The first man I have been interested in for months since Sweetie in fact. I must avoid him. It is not honorable to Sweetie. The other New Mexico stories are The Child of Nature, New Idea Womans Magazine, 9/04, pp. 43-4, CLC 1:11, and The Cinderella of El Cinco undated, unsourced, CLC 2:5.

162     as for the young lady     New York Times, March 1, 1914.

162     Jack Painter     Hicks 575-7; Carrey & Conley 174-5; Greenfield; Furman 47-50; unsourced material in Painters PCHA biographical file.

164     Honest, now,     CL, The Wildest Boat Ride in America, The Outing Magazine LIX: 5, February 1912, pp. 515-524, CLC 1:7. (Its reprinted in full in Carrey and Conley 30-44.) Pizen is poison. Subsequent quotes in this section are from the same source, which strikes me as quite factual, not fictionalized. Additional material: CL, Washing Out a Pin for Father, Philadelphia North American, August 27, 1911, CLC 2:5; Jones; Carrey and Conley 174-5; Furman 68-73; Hicks 575-7.

166     gold     Washing Out a Pin for Father says Eakin, Painters predecessor, discovered gold dust in his peach orchard. Carrey and Conley say that Johnny McKay found coarse gold along the left bank of the river, and not being a hardrock miner& informed J.R. [Painter] of the likely prospect. (p. 175). Carrey and Conley say Painter got his money from the DuPont family, but other sources mention the Villard family.

171     I am trying to     Quoted in Montgomery Advertiser, 2/2/12, in CLC 2:5. The snapshots are also in CLC 2:5. Subsequent quotes in this section are from Washing Out a Pin for Father.

173     passed through Elk City      The News of Elk City, Idaho County Free Press, 11/14/12, quoted in Furman 183. I dont read too much into the papers reference to Philadelphia as her home. Other reports, including all the publicity for her books from 1911 to 1914, say Cody is her home. Esenweins autograph is in CLC 1:13. The Kingston visit (her fathers sister Isabelle Darte lived there) is in CLC 2:5.

173     A one-act play.     CLC 1:7. The script is not dated, nor does it give a complete address for Lockhart. Because of its simplistic plot, I believe the script pre-dates her novel The Man from the Bitter Roots.

174     she is very seldom at home     Jeannette Gilder,  Chicago Tribune, 3/21/14, in CLC 2:5.

176     wanton slaughter     CL, The Man from the Bitter Roots 31.

177     Theres a hundred square miles     CL, The Man from the Bitter Roots 32.

177     left Idaho for Cody     Miss Lockhart in Search of Material, CE 12/24/13, quoted in Hicks 52.

178     La Ceiba      Humphrey; Langley & Schoonover; (accessed 5/19/2005). CL, untitled memoir 69-70, CLC 1:9.

179     a piffling mind      CL, Honduras Report Conjures Pictures of Other Revolts Denver Post undated, CLC 2:6.

180     We were still some distance      CL, untitled memoir 69-70, CLC 1:9. I have fixed some misspellings in the unedited draft. Suzette Loses Novel in Ocean, Philadelphia Bulletin, 4/5/14, CLC 2:5 and quoted in Culpin 11.

181     Nicaragua     Berman; Langley & Schoonover; (accessed 5/19/2005). Furman 73 discusses the views of Painters descendants, as well as an alleged contract Borah secured for Painter to supply cement for the construction of the Nicaraguan canal; I can believe there was some sort of contract, but the canal was never close to construction.

181     both a capsizing and a fire     Both accounts boast the tiny details and sharp imagery that usually signify Lockharts personal witness of an event. Because she told the capsizing story first, Im tempted to give it more credence. But CLC 2:5 contains several pictures of fire-charred Central American ruins, including one labeled Where Bitter Roots went up in smoke.

182     one of the best long stories      A Chat with You, Popular Magazine, undated but probably 8/7/15, CLC 2:5. Subsequent reviews: NYC Bookseller, 11/15/15 (real stuff); Grand Rapids News 12/22/15 (unfair); Boston Evening Transcript, 11/17/15 (drivel); unsourced, undated (happy faculty); Boston Globe, 11/20/15 (for this); Chicago Continental 12/16/15 (decidedly); Philadelphia Evening Telegraph, 12/23/15 (man writers); all in CLC 2:5.

183     1916 movie;; (all accessed 5/13/2005)

183     Marjory Ross     CE obituary 12/30/64; (accessed 5/12/05). Furman 51, citing interviews with various Codyites, describes Ross as small [and] attractive. Some legal documents spell Ross name Margery, but I will follow Lockharts and most other Codyites lead in using Marjory. Fees has already in print characterized Ross and Lane as lesbians, but I nevertheless tread on their privacy with much regret and unease.

186     She was sixty      CL memoir quoted in Dominick Introduction 25. Subsequent quotes in this section are from the same source, except for Get off which is quoted in Furman 77. (Furman 77-81 and Hicks 58-60 apparently rely on slightly different versions of the memoir.) I have fixed some misspellings in the unedited draft.

186     a fighting face.     Walker 41. For Moores life, see Milek 58-62, Walker 35-41, and especially Morrison.

189     black M on the front.     CL memoir quoted in Dominick Introduction 25. Subsequent quotes in this section are from the same source, and I have fixed misspellings.

190     She greased the wheels     CL memoir quoted in Dominick 26.

191     fancy fruits and jellies      Walker 39-40. Writing in 1936, Walker (a woman herself) said, Being a woman, she was naturally taken advantage of by her working men.

191     factual story of Lucy Morrison Moore     Morrison. This memoir by the Sheep Queens daughter-in-law is based on her own contemporaneous diary, as well as a lifetime of knowledge of the Morrison-Moore clanqualities Lockharts memoirs lack.

193     I like people     Morrison 68.

195     I hate you!     CL, Fighting Shepherdess 4. Subsequent quotes in this section are from pp. 16 (Prouty), 294 (nitrogen), 47 (sharer), 148 (sordid), 237-8 (cinch), 245 (paradise), 248-9 (goal), 249 (helpless), 369 (indifference), 370 (go on). You may recall the real-life S.S. Prouty, a trustee at Lockharts Topeka high school.

196     Seth Arthur Ash     S.A. Ash, Manager of the Western Drug Co., Assassinated, [Cody] Stockgrower and Farmer, 12/10/09, PCHA Ash files. Also Wyoming Editor Recalls Murder of Grass Creek Oil Worker, CE 2/4/42. In 1922 Lampitt was convicted of another murder, amidst much press attention that labeled him the model for Mullendore. Dorothy Newton later ran her own sheep ranch and may have served as an additional model for Kate (Gretchen Kuiper, personal correspondence, 9/15/2005).

204     the old fighting look     Walker 41

207     Grace Edgington     Diaries, quoted in Hicks 89-90. Subsequent quotes in this section (as well as Lockharts thoughts, occasionally presented without quotation marks) are from the same source, pp. 87-92. Also: Ramona Warren interview, Eskridge, KS, 4/22/03.

207     breezy tolerance     Quoted in Hicks 87-8.

209     Philadelphia      Diaries quoted in Hicks 89-90, including thoughts and all direct quotes. The context confirms this is Philadelphia.

210     terminating a pregnancy     Diaries 5/24/34.

212     Boston     Diaries quoted in Hicks 91-100, including direct quotes on pp. 96-8. In Jenkins defense, he may have seen a very rough draft. Mencken scholars can find no record of Lockhart, but note that not all of his prolific correspondence survives. Hicks transcribed the Popular author as Rames, which I assume is Raine though I cant pinpoint the story Lockhart refers to. Lockhart uses no pronoun to refer to Bower, so its unclear whether she knew Bower was female. For Lippincott, see Hicks 148.

215     shelp me,      Diaries, quoted in Hicks 103.

216     O.B. Mann     Furman 86, Hicks 565-6

217     Id murder for you!     Diaries 10/21/18, quoted in Hicks 122. Subsequent diary quotes: 10/27/18 on p. 124 (book coming out), 11/27/18 on p. 130 (too foolish), 7/8/18 on p. 100 (made my boast), and 7/13/18 on p. 101 (ruination).

220     Guess I look like     Diaries 1/22/19 quoted in Hicks 135. See also Furman 47.

221     I can write circles     Quoted in Hicks 133. Subsequent diary quote: 1/22/19 on p. 136 (wrinkled dame), 2/27/19 on p. 140 (anything), 1/14/19 on p. 134 (sweetest ever), 2/5/19 on p. 137 (heartache), 1/22/19 on p. 135 (knocker), 1/22/19 on p. 136 (Lothario), and 1/14/19 on p.135 (never a man).

222     Kaiser      CL, Why Fuss over Kaiser? Denver Post 12/29/18, quoted in Furman 95-6. Lockharts other Post articles are mentioned in Hicks 133-146 and/or collected in CLC 2:4 and 2:6.

223     Lockhart paced     Hicks 142-5. The suggestion that Lockhart act is in her diary for 12/23/18, a typescript in PCHA. Diary quotes: 3/9/19 in Hicks pp. 142-3 (chum, snake, bad as I am), 3/12/19 on p. 143 (no hope), 3/18/19 on p. 144 (my own boob), and 3/24/19 on p. 145 (unpolished).

226     Would he ever show up?     Hicks 147-51.

226     reviews      Hicks 148-9; reviews clipped in CLC 2:4. Lockharts diary misquoted the Sun; I used the original. The letters from friends are in Lockharts diary entries for 3/27/19 and 3/30/19, PCHA typescript.

228     Mrs. Baconrind     CL, Getting Atmosphere, a manuscript in CLC 1:9, reprinted in Hicks 609-615. According to Furmans notes (LFC box 1, folder 9), a version of this story appeared in the Denver Post magazine, 12/14 and 12/19, 1920. Especially compared to her diary entries, the piece engenders my skepticism. Though probably correct in broad outlines, it likely played (even subconsciously) to societal stereotypes of Native Americans.

229     grossly fat, vain, arrogant.     Getting Atmosphere. Subsequent quotes in this section are from the same source.

230     Osage       Wilson, McAuliffe.

233     Lockhart lay in the tent      Diaries quoted in Hicks 151-9. Direct quotes: undated on p. 152 (outdoor living), 5/25/19 on pp. 156-7 (far above me, self-abnegation, Belasco).  

236     newspaper report      Fairfax, Okla., Chief, May 18, 1919, reprinted in Hicks 155-6. The what satisfaction quote: Diaries 6/13/19 on p. 162.

239     Douglas Fairbanks     Noted Cody Authoress Receives Big Offer from Doug Fairbanks, CE 7/23/19, reprinted in Hicks 172. Using terminology common to the era, the article refers to screenplays as scenarios. Lockhart was the source for this story; her monetary figures are completely absurd. See Hicks 170-172.

240     Dude ranches     My claim that no author had published dude-ranch fiction before Lockhart is based on a search for stories with Dude in the title in the comprehensive database at (12/8/2004). Thats not foolproof, but Yates (Lockhart 36) leans toward the same conclusion.

242     epithet of opprobrium     CL, The Dude Wrangler 35. Subsequent quotes in this section are from 7 (she was young) and 158 (duder). See also Hicks 180.

246     brightest newspaper woman      Diaries 6/26/19 quoted in Hicks 96.

Cowboy Publisher

247     Caroline Lockharts living room     Diaries, 4/22/20, 4/27/20; CE 5/5/20 (which contains the quotes), 4/4/34, and 6/29/38; Furman 110-113; CLC pictures reprinted in Hicks 80-81; Larom bio file, PCHA. CL untitled memoir in CLC 1:10, p. 1, contains the rodeo quote. Eldridge 2 has the physical description.

250     Doc Bennett      Murray (fastest doc p. 42); Boyett 6; CE 5/12/20 (that letter of yours); Diaries 4/29/20 and 5/6/20 (power and prestige).

255     Everybody grins     Diaries 6/12/20 (grins), and 7/4/20 (headline); CE 6/2/20 (horse& rider) and 6/16/20 (wild man).

257     Ladies and Gentlemen!     Diaries and CEs, July 1920.

259     movie of The Fighting Shepherdess      Diaries 3/4/20; Diaries July 1920; Hicks 188-9.

260      Am out of a job,     Diaries and CEs, May-Oct 1920.

264     Cody Stampede ball     CE 11/3/20, plus Diaries 10/24/20 and 11/8/20.

267     but fear of talk     Diaries, Oct 1920Feb 1921 including quotes from 10/27/20 (talk), 2/15/21 (cheap), 11/23/20 (good).

269     sheriff for breakfast!     Diaries Jan-Mar 1921, including quotes from 2/17/21 (breakfast) and 2/11/21 (churches). Also CE 6/14/22.

272     second annual Stampede     Diaries Mar-July 1921, including quotes on 3/31/21 (reaper), 5/22/21 (ignoramus), and 5/4/21 (Ye gods). CE 2/9/21 (best man win).

275     Mr. Webb Adams      CE, June 29, 1921. Diaries May-July 1921, including quotes on 6/21/21 (Nobody), 6/30/21 (worse), and 7/26/21 (financially).

277     Mr. S.A. Nock      CE, 8/10/21. Diaries July-Sept 1921, including quote from 8/8/21 (pride).

279     Hairbreadth Harry     CE 10/12/21; Dominick 53-4. Diaries Oct-Dec 1921; including quote from 11/20/21 (irritating).

281     The lady editor was wet!     CL untitled memoir, CLC 1:10, folder 6, p. 106. Diaries 9/18/21 (cut ice). CE 11/26/21, 6/21/22 (good by law), 4/19/22 (Omaha), 5/31/22 (Cullen). I was skeptical that she coined the aphorism until realizing that C.S. Lewis gets credit for coining You cannot make men good by lawin 1952.

284     vulgar, obscene, coarse, ribald,     I am especially indebted to the work of Frank Boyett. See pp. 9-12. Also File 890, Park County Closed Civil Cases; Diaries 5/20/22.

286     installing myself there.     Diaries 1/16/21, 3/2/21 (fascinating), 10/16/21 (God-damn). Kroger 305-364, Ross 458. The scant record of independent female editor/publishers before 1950 includes Mary Ann Shadd Cary and Ida B. Wells.

288     theyre on the jury.     CEs 1/26/22 and 2/1/22 (knitting).

290     June Little      CE 2/1/22. I have fixed some misspellings in the original. Also 5/25/21.

292     Meddlesome Marjories      CE 3/1/22 (law and order, Chautauqua), 3/8/22 (books), 4/19/22 (dead body). Diaries 2/11/22, 2/18/22 (wildcat), 3/5/22, 3/8/22, 3/25/22. Some legal documents spell Ross name Margery, though Lockhart and other Codyites used a variety of other spellings.

294     Pontoon Johnny     CE 5/10/22 (Johnny, fantastical), 5/3/22 (factional), 2/5/24 (droll), 5/31/22 (Shepperd). Diaries 3/18/22, 4/13/22, 4/14/22 (no freer), 4/15/22 (need clothes), 5/8/22 (civil war), 5/12/22 (licking). Heralds quoted in Nicholas 73-4.

298     Gertrude Vanderbilt Whitney      I am especially indebted to the work of Liza Nicholas. Also CE 7/12/22 (Schreyvogel), 1/4/22 (lard), 5/10/22 (Mecca); History of the Buffalo Bill Memorial Association in MS 58, Series VIA, Box 15, Folder 1, BBHC. Also Mary Jester Allen, Colonel Codys Dream of a Pioneer Center A Reality Annals of Wyoming, Jan. 1942.

301     August Republican primary     CE 8/16/22, 8/23/22 (hind leg); Diaries 8/26/22 (whipped), 9/7/22 (restful), 9/8/22 (conditions). Simpsons progeny later became a Wyoming political dynasty.

303     Harry Wiard     CE 10/18/22 (Arbuckle), 11/1/22 (newtonish), 11/8/22 , 1/10/23, 12/27/22 (retirement).

306     Mr. Paul Eldridge      CE 11/29/22; Eldridge; Hicks 92, 568-572 (which reprints much of Eldridges paper); Boyett notes. Eldridge letter to CL, 9/19/48, CLC 1:9 (worship).

308     He was gay     Hicks 333, 335, 357, 570. Again, I would have preferred to write this book without invading the late Eldridges privacy, but Hicks has already published the material outing him, and his sexuality will help us understand Lockharts all-consuming hatred for Frances Lane.

309     Tom Ames     CE 2/14/23; Nicholas.

311     commute      Boyett 1.

312     Having purchased the interest      CE 3/7/23, 5/2/23 (kick), 4/18/23 (Debate), 5/20/23 (odd fee).

315     Scotty Sherrin and A.E. Carey      CE 6/27/23 (nickel star), 7/4/23 (our attention), 7/11/23 (go your best). Furman 137-9 (quotes from Gopperts lawsuit), Boyett 42-6. Diaries 7/20/24, 12/31/24 (libel suit in the air).

319     Gop Gets Pop     CE 7/11/23, 7/18/23, 9/19/23, 10/10/23, 10/17/23, 10/24/23, 11/21/23, 1/16/24. CL untitled memoir, CLC Box 1:10

322     Whitney statue of Buffalo Bill       CE 3/7/23, 7/18/23, 10/17/23, 4/2/24. Nicholas, especially 77-86, discusses the statues meaning and the controversy of the horse.

325     George Huss     Boyett 50, Furman 141, Diaries 11/19/24.

326     unveiling of Whitneys statue      Nicholas is great here, and pointed me to the following quotes. CE 7/9/24 (shrine) 6/18/24 (Inspiration), 7/23/24 (preserving and Albright). Diaries 7/20/24 (George and hold the sack).

330     Me and My Record,     CE 10/22/24 (war record and refused to print), 10/29/24. Boyett 33-6 quoting CE 8/27/24 (practically unknown) and 10/29/24 (camisole and I love babies)

332     gay ensemblage.     CE 12/31/24, quoting the editor of the Lovell newspaper. Also 12/3/24 (Custer scout), 11/19/24 (Carey). Diaries 11/19/24 (Huss, have a car), 12/31/24 (Papa seemed glad), 2/1/25 (real heiress and writing feeling), 3/6/25 (crazy to start)

334     I am enjoying my car     Diaries 5/25/25, 8/19/24 (impecunious), 3/6/25 (cowardice), 4/5/25 (God!).

337     Gop has another tantrum     CE 4/22/25 (tantrum), 4/29/25 (Yuzl). Boyett 40-41.

337     Blanche Gokel     Hicks 129 (ear-mark), 192-3 (reprints Herald story); Furman 135-6; Diaries 7/12/25; CE 6/24/25, 7/8/25, 7/15/25 (best horses).

340     bowl of mush     Diaries 9/21/25

340     Victor H. Abrahamson     CE 10/14/25, 10/21/25, 10/28/25 (fearlessness and fraternity), 11/4/25 (pungent), 6/6/23. Hicks 192. Diaries April - November 1925, including 10/16/25 (free), 10/17/25 (honyocker), and 11/13/25 (what I wanted).


Cowboy Girl

345     Bad Pass     Washington Irving, The Adventures of Captain Bonneville (1837) Chapter 23. Accessed 3/30/05 at: Dryhead history in Bearss; Harvey; Cultural Landscapes Inventory. Layout and Davis Creeks have changed names several times in the last 100 years; for simplicitys sake, I use current names. Ruth Frenchs story, which may be exaggerated, is on Hicks 593.

348     housedress      The description is from Eldridge, Woman on Horseback, p. 21, LFC. Eldridge did not visit the ranch until 1929, but the image of Lockhart in the kitchen is unlikely to have changed in three years. She describes the housework in her Diaries for June-July 1926; some are excerpted in Hicks 240-1.

349     the laboring class.     Eldridge, Woman on Horseback, quoted in Hicks 570-1. The subsequent diary quotes are from 6/28/26 (Lou is working), 6/23/26 (my own log cabin), and 6/25/26 (triangle to hammer on).  Spragg oral history 23-4 (baler).

351     rottenworse than the Herald.     Diaries, 11/29/25. The subsequent diary quotes are from 1/22/26 (lying, bragging) and 1/26/26 (cheap crooks).

352     nervous and stupid     Diaries, 5/1/26, quoted in Boyett 48. Boyetts same page also quotes the judges instructions; no trial transcript exists. Lockhart repeated the blackbird image in several of her late-life memoirs.

354     I am so uninterested     Diaries, 10/23/26, quoted in Hicks 245. Also 11/3/26 (get back), quoted in Hicks 245.

355     Homestead Act      Worster 338-40; Merrill 43-44; Gates 496-7 and 516-29. See also Rufus Snell oral history (2/22/2000, untranscribed), tape 2 side B, BCNRA.

358     log cabin      Cultural Landscapes Inventory; miscellaneous NPS documents collected in the Lockhart Research Notebook, BCNRA. Culpin 20 says that Wassons homestead filing lists improvements including a six-room log house, barn, and two chicken-houses in addition to those listed here. But the NPS analyses suggest that Wassons claim was not truthful.

360     Countys three commissioners      Diaries, 8/13/27 (only partially reprinted in Hicks 255, mistranscribed as 8/12).

362     The Barrys     Hicks 208, 584-594; Bearss 383-7; Spragg ms. 118.

363     Be Jesus.     Hicks 578 ($150), 581 (not his name), 592 (help himself), 668. Diaries 8/7/26 (I like Joe), 8/25/27 (first trick).

366     Bill Poole     Diaries 5/3/28 (kiss), 3/28/28 (it seems strange), 5/11/28, 6/14/28 (for ten years), 6/16/28 (new chapter)

369     30-30 rifle     Diaries 7/7/28 (Pooles version), 7/20/28 (Ericsons version). Shooting Affray at Wyoming Writers Ranch, Lovell Chronicle, undated, CLC 2:6, reprinted in Hicks 261.

371     largest cattle ranches      Western Writer Adds Additional Acres to Large Ranch Holding, undated, unsourced clipping, CLC 2:6. Caroline Lockhart Adds to her Ranch Interests Dryhead, undated, unsourced clipping (though the language suggests a Cody paper), CLC 2:6. Diaries 1/13/29 (got the dough), 12/1/28 (full of ginger), 12/16/28 (Philadelphia).  

372     headstrong,     Diaries 2/23/29, 2/25/29. Subsequent quotes in this section are from the same source.

374     more than love     Diaries 6/27/29, 6/29/29.

376     rid of the skunk     Diaries 4/21/29.

377     Fencing      Claude St. John testimony, Lockhart homestead case (Federal Land Office, Billings, Mont., 1933, Record Group 49, National Archives), LFC box 2 folder 4. Diaries 10/2/28, 5/13/29, 5/23/29, 8/16/29, 9/2/29 (dirty socks). Hicks 279-284.

379     Dave Good      Dave Good, Cody Oldtimer Dies Monday CE 4/15/65; Hicks 232-3, 284-9, 572. Diaries 9/26/29 (we talk).

380     Two Dog     Diaries 11/19/29, quoted on Hicks 286, and 12/1/32 (calculation), on Hicks 311. Johnson testimony, Lockhart homestead case, LFC box 2 folder 4.

382     I cant stand this,     Diaries 2/16/30, 12/26/29.

386     impotent      Diaries 2/17/30.

386     Clarence Curen      Diaries 7/25/30, 7/26/30, 6/29/31 (Lane), 9/15/31 (annoyed as hell). CL, letter to Fred Johnson, 5/15/34, quoted in Culpin 25 and Hicks 583 (not well balanced). Hicks 220-1, 306-8, 578. Some sources spell the name Curens, but note the gravestone pictured on Hicks 230.

387     Hank Lane     Spragg ms. 139-40. I have fixed some misspellings and standardized verb tenses in the unedited draft. Hicks 220-1; Trails and Tales 662.

389     serviceberries     Diaries 7/25/30 (Lockharts account, including the dialogue, and ridiculous). Curen testimony, Lockhart homestead case, LFC box 2 folder 4 (Curens account). Lockhart always spelled the word savisberry, but I have used todays standard spelling.

390     The American Language      Mencken 270; Diaries 3/8/30. Oddly, given that Mencken cites her explicitly as a fiction writer, the example he references is nonfiction, a 1918 Denver Post article. Later Eldridge would claim that Menckens text also referred to Lockhart as one of the four best humorists in America. (See Hicks 571.) But it does not, and given that Mencken scholars can find no other trace of Lockhart in his papers, we have to assume that Eldridge was mistaken.

391     Cimarron     Diaries 4/2/31, 8/15/30 (bad judgement).

392     stroke     Diaries 10/15/31 (note that Hicks has mistranscribed the incident). Her one short story after 1926 was Not a Redeeming Trait, in Popular, 1929.

392     18 Karat     CL, Old WestAnd New. The picturesque quote is on p. 212. Also John Clayton, New West is an old concept, Denver Post 2/4/2001; Yates Lockhart 37-40.

397     my old form      Diaries 1/22/32, 2/6/32 (inspired), 2/14/32 (zest), 2/7/32 (climax), 2/6/32 (Cabin). Obviously the novel was nothing like Uncle Toms Cabin, in either quality or impact. Even by the time it was published she understood that, and she would likely be furious at me for excavating such an embarrassing quote.

398     swallowed my pride     Diaries, 4/30/32; A. Dudley Gardner, Continuity and Change: The Great Depression [in Wyoming] accessed at on 4/12/2005.

401     slick fat cattle      Diaries 7/1/32, 9/9/32 (souring). Phelps had sold the Dryhead ranch, which was now going by the name of the Antlers Ranch.

402     Cowboys Luck!      Diaries 10/5/32, 10/16/32 (Old WestAnd New), 10/27/32 (stupid), 2/4/33 (hardest).

403     Guy Derry     Diaries 3/11/33 (seal), 2/11/33 (horsethief), 2/24/33 (relinquishment).

405     Miss or Mrs. Spear      Diaries 5/20/33.

405     New York Times      NYT Literary Supplement, 11/9/33, p. 776, LFC. Diaries 4/12/33 (rigor).

407     culminating tragedy      Diaries 6/9/33, 7/4/35 quoted on Hicks 350 (butcher), 6/16/33 (anyone but Dave), 7/8/33 quoted on Hicks 314 (little man), 8/13/33 quoted on Hicks 317 (beneath me), 8/24/33 (terrible winter), 3/23/33 (whatever that is), 8/26/33 (drive him away).

408     homestead hearing      Lockhart homestead case, LFC box 2 folder 4. Diaries 10/20/33; Culpin 19-23.

412     My job is     Quoted on Culpin 19. The quote is actually from a letter she wrote on appeal restating her case.

413     spent a single night      Diaries 6/8/33. LeFors is quoted on Culpin 23.

414     lantern-jawed thief     Diaries 12/22/33, 3/4/34 (they will learn), 3/15/34 (skeered).

416     Sophistication set upon      Single page of a letter enclosed in the diary for 3/28/34. Its not signed or dated, but the context makes clear that Eldridge is the author.

416     dirty breaks      Diaries 1/3/35, quoted in Hicks 333, and 1/22/35 (let out), quoted in Hicks 335.

417     greenest dude      Diaries 5/28/34, 5/5/34.

418     shirks, incompetent, or disloyal.     Diaries 7/22/34, 12/15/34 (go off sore; in January he offered another man a $20 severance), 9/23/34 (sell cattle; her debt to the Regional fluctuated from $5,000 to $8,400), 11/27/34 (masterpiece).

420     Ed Pickering     Spragg ms. 129, 146.

421     merely colorable     T.A. Walters, first assistant secretary, Department of Interior, Adverse Hearings Dismissed report, 3/12/36, LFC box 7. Colorable here means intended to deceive. Hicks 671 (Morley).

423     hay at $10 a ton     Diaries 9/17/36; Hicks 367-378. The other man is referred to as Tuffy (no last name given); presumably its not Tuffy Abbott, since she was by now referring to Abbott as Packrat.

425     they want to     Diaries 4/26/37.

427     Ben Taylor      Diaries 8/18/37 (like a tick), 9/2/37 (hoodlum) 10/18/37 (born criminal), 11/22/37 (hobbled his horse).

431     regeneration through violence     Numerous scholars have written about the meaning of the frontier; again Im indebted to Richard Slotkin. This phrase is the title of the first book in Slotkins four-part history of the frontier.

433     weak of me      Diaries 5/12/38, 12/29/37 ($1), 1/25/38 (feel lost), 10/15/38 (peddlers trash). Hicks 594 (Ruth).

435     Judy St. Clair      CL, That Wicked Woman, unpublished 333-page manuscript in CLC box 1:10. Lockharts papers include at least two versions of this novel, undated and with various titles, and its not clear what she actually sent to Maule. But this is clearly the manuscript she was working on in the late 1930s and 40s, so we can safely assume that the Maule manuscript was at least similar.

437     can I do it?     Diaries 5/31/39. Spirit of Old West Dying Fast, Says Montana Woman, Author of Western Stories undated, unsourced (though apparently Billings), CLC 2:6 (most finished).

438     shot at her      Hicks 485, 672; Oscar Thompson interview. Given Lockharts bad eyesight, Im skeptical that it was a gunshot directed at her. The bad eyesight would also be a good reason to stop riding.

441     Lockharts cooks     Spragg oral history 10, where Hazel is transcribed as Ada; Ive changed it to match Spraggs manuscript and Lockharts diaries. Spragg ms. 130-1 (birthday), 133 (menial labor, damn lie), 129 (percolating), 142 (looking after), 144 (Chinaman). Spraggs manuscript notes that Chinaman was a common reference in those days and he does not mean to be derogatory. I have fixed some misspellings in the unedited draft. Spragg was not related to the Wyoming writer Mark Spragg.

444     downright tight     Spragg ms. 116, 144, 114 (proved my feelings), 147 (plain BS, turmoil). Spragg oral history 3 (agitated)

445     Oscar and Dick Thompson     Hicks 538-543, 557, 677-8; Oscar and Jane Thompson interview, 10/18/2004; Diaries 1/9/42 (sissies), 1/30/42 (contented).

449     Laura Mauch      Local Ranch Woman Announce Engagement of Her Employees 12/13/44 unsourced, CLC 2:6. (Hicks 558-9 reprints it from CE; other papers ran it as well. Though not bylined, its obviously written by Lockhart.) CL, letter to Mrs. Kerper, 12/22/44 (fixed, Ouch), CLC 2:1; letters to Jay Adler, 9/24/44 (guinea pig, zoot suit) and 10/20/44 (saddle rope), JAP.

453     paralyzed in the hind quarters      CL to Jay Adler, 11/21/45, JAP.

453     remote homesteading      Raban.

455     Sterling     J.P. Lawrie visits Cad Lockheart on Montana ranch Sterling (IL) Gazette, 8/25/41, CLC 2:6. Diaries 2/24/40 quoted in Hicks 502 (Grace). As noted earlier, census records and other independent sources indicate that Grace was incorrect; Lockhart was indeed born in 1871.

455     Dryhead News     Dryhead News, various undated, unsourced clippings, CLC 2:6.

457     armed truce     CL to Jay Adler, 9/9/48, 9/23/48, 10/8/48 (exaggerated), 12/28/48 (indispensable), JAP. Craig in Jordan, MT, to Adler, 2/20/48, JAP.

460     hate to sell     CL to Dorothea Nebel, 8/8/49, LFC.  CL to Jay Adler 9/8/49, 10/16/49, JAP.

462     Bud DeVoss     CL to Adler 7/24/50, 11/2/50 (steam heat), JAP. David Dominick interview.

464     picket-line      CL to Adler 11/18/51, 12/55 (chore). The key is reprinted in the 2003 edition of The Lady Doc.

466     From Here to Eternity     CL to Nebel 6/13/51, 1/18/52 (conceit); Sisters of the Sage 30 (Nicks nightcap).

467     invested in     CL to Adler 2/56.

468     Indian keepsakes      CL to Adler 10/20/46 (Smith), 6/28/51 (Plenticoos), undated but likely summer 1955 (Other Buffalo, grafters), 4/5/54 (McCarthy), JAP.

469     Crowders daughter Sue     Telephone interview with Caroline Sue Dowling, 10/26/2004.

470     wasted work      CL to Adler, undated, 4/5/54 (spare time) JAP.

474     those of the townsfolk      CL, undated, untitled memoir beginning Almost 50 years later, Box 2:1, CLC, p. 25. Lockhart used the term morphodite, a comic slang pronunciation of hermaphrodite; todays preferred term is intersexed. I have fixed some other misspellings in the unedited draft.

477     Hopalong Cassidy     CL to Adler, 5/55, JAP; CL to Nebel undated, LFC. The Devils Playground, 1946. We dont know which Hoppy adventure Lockhart was watching, but in almost every feature hes dressed the same, laughs that laugh, and at some point says, Let me introduce myself, Im Hopalong Cassidy.


480     Fourth of July parade      Jack Richard photograph in CLC, reprinted in Furman and Hicks 235.

481     dying released her      Sylvia Crowder to Jay Adler, 7/29/62, JAP; Furman 165.

481     convenient peak     Kathryn Wright, Forever with mountains, winds and water, undated Billings Gazette clipping, CLC 1:9.

482     out of print     The Lady Doc was reissued in 2003. The CLCs second accession was purchased in about 2001.

484     Lucille Patrick      CE 3/21/84.

484     Pete Spragg     Spragg ms. 134 (testimony), 150 (Little Pete, whose real name was Gene); Spragg oral history 40 (successful), 38 (horses). I have fixed some misspellings in the unedited drafts.


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