On this site:
The Cowboy Girl is a work of non-fiction. All its characters are real; nothing has been disguised or embellished. Where I have used dialogue, it is based on the recollection of at least one participant, as documented in the endnotes.
But how do you balance brevity and precision? As I cut material out of the endnotes, figuring that few readers would want to slog all the way through them, I vowed to put the complete source citations up on the website, for researchers who wanted to further pursue any of the topics I addressed.
So here are those notes. They're best used in conjunction with the printed bibliography in the published book, which fleshes out some of these "short cites" (for example, giving the full names of the Dominick and Guthrie documents cited in the Prologue). Following the notes are a list of additional sources -- not mentioned in the book's bibliography -- that might also be of interest. Page numbers refer to the December 2005 manuscript, so won't correspond to the published pages (sorry). Any questions, please feel free to email me at info at johnclaytonbooks. com
BBHC: Buffalo Bill Historical Center, Cody, Wyo.
BCNRA: Bighorn Canyon National Recreation Area, Lovell, Wyo.
BP: Boston Post
CE: Cody Enterprise, including the Park County Enterprise prior to 1921 (at PCL, PCHA and/or BBHC).
CL: Caroline Lockhart
CLC: Caroline Lockhart Collection, American Heritage Center, University of Wyoming, Laramie, Wyo. Box numbers are prefaced by 1: or 2: because there are two accessions of Lockhart materials.
Diaries: Caroline Lockharts diaries. The originals are at CLC; photocopies at LFC, and a brief typed transcription in the Lucille Patrick files at PCHA. Most though by no means all of the diaries are excerpted in Hicks, Lockhart.
ES: Eskridge Star, complete with index at the Eskridge (Kan.) Public Library
JAP: Jay Adler Papers, MHS
KSHS: Kansas State Historical Society archives, Topeka, Kan.
LFC: Lockhart-Furman Collection, BBHC, Cody, Wyo.
MHS: Montana Historical Society Library, Helena, Mont.
OCC: Osage County Chronicle (Kansas, at KSHS)
OCP: Ogle County Press (Illinois, at the Polo Public Library, Polo, Ill.)
PB: Philadelphia Bulletin
PCHA: Park County Historical Archives, Cody, Wyo.
PCL: Park County Library, Cody, Wyo.
SG: Sterling Gazette (Illinois, at SPL)
SPL: Sterling Public Library, Sterling, Ill.
1 sublimity Swift Current Courier 9/1/00, MHS. Richest and biggest is from the same source.
5 across the summit Altyn, Dupuyer Acantha 8/29/01, MHS.
7 spry old man CL, untitled ms. quoted on Dominick 14. This old-age memoir is not entirely reliable; for example, nowhere else is McNeill called Sourdough Sam. It may have been her pet nickname for him, or it may have been a detail she later fabricated to improve the story.
7 rough trail CL, A Girl in the Rockies, Lippincotts 8/02, p. 187.
7 Thars yer trail A Girl in the Rockies 188.
8 Park Service materials Granite Park Chalet Guest Information. I made this trip in September, 2003.
9 long-legged sorrel CL, untitled ms. quoted on Dominick 16. Subsequent quotes in this section are from the same source; my experience on the trail suggests her account is perhaps overdramatized but basically true. For example, for horses slipping over cliffs, see Guthrie 81.
Born on a Horse
12 Joe Lockhart Carroll County real estate records, Mt. Carroll Ill.; Ogle County real estate records, Oregon, Ill.; Papa and his prodigal photo reproduced in Furman; Muster and Descriptive Rolls, Seventh Illinois Cavalry, Company B, Illinois State Archives; Thiem 137.
13 During the decade Worster 52.
14 property 1870 Carroll County census (p. 96), Lanark Public Library, Lanark, IL.
14 Sarah gave birth Caroline always gave her birthplace as Eagle Point, which is the name of the Woodruffs neighborhood. So she may have been born at her mothers parents house rather than her own parents house a few miles away in Elkhorn Grove; nevertheless, Eagle Point and Elkhorn Grove are basically the same neighborhood separated only by a county line. No record of the birth exists, and Hicks suggests Lockhart was born in 1870. But the 1870, 75, and 80 census data back up Lockharts claim that she was born in 1871.
14 the sawmill burned Theim 137.
16 An 1875 censustaker 1875 Kansas census, vol. 56 p. 10, at KSHS. It lists Cary, age 4.
17 largest mule in the state OCC, 2/7/78.
17 an idyllic time West, Growing; Kathryn Adam in Armitage and Jameson 95.
18 I was born on a horse. Vern Spencer, quoted on Culpin 1.
18 A childrens party OCC, 3/6/79.
18 homestead records dont really support Kansas tract books, KSHS. The barely-legible records appear to indicate that this plot was homesteaded in the 1850s.
19 Youth Temperance Alliance OCC 11/28/78 and 12/12/78.
20 terms and prices reasonable OCC 5/20/80. Also 1/15/80, 4/15/80, 5/6/80, 10/28/80, 12/30/80.
20 Our earliest recollection of Cad Burlingame Enterprise, 5/16/12, provided by Linda Fagan.
20 I lived in a Western town CL, My First Proposal, BP undated CLC 2:6.
21 Anglo-Texan cattle ranchers Jordan 267-75.
23 The Homestead Act of 1862 Worster 338-9; also Meinig 164-7, Malin xii, Bowden 194-6, Wrobel Promised 53-8.
24 Whos that boy CL, My First Proposal. Since Lockhart was writing for entertainment, this account is probably not the strict truth. (For example, she claims she was 13, but at that age her school was in Illinois, not Kansas.) But she was in her mid-20s when she wrote it, close enough in time to have accurately remembered numerous details.
27 care about anything but horses CL, The Man from the Bitter Roots 12-13.
28 paperback novels Sullivan 210-216, Johnson 501, Slotkin Gunfighter 145, Slotkin Fatal 87 & 307, Etulain Telling.
29 If you wear that thing CL, untitled memoir, LFC box 1.
29 thought the frontier no place Adler ms., JAP folder 7.
30 Bayliss Wallace 1385; Gale. Clara Bayliss went on to write childrens books (including Lolami, the Little Cliff Dweller) set in the West. Though Lockhart surely must have known Clara Bayliss, sadly Lockharts reminiscences do not discuss Bayliss influence.
30 a natural writer. Ward; Bayliss notebooks 178 & 250, Sterling Historical Museum, Sterling Ill.
30 nose for news, Famous Author
31 What a thrill Famous Author
31 Your father is seldom home Famous Author
31 An 1885 state census 1885 Kansas census, Burlingame p. 50, at KSHS. Sterling directory 1883 and 87-88, at SPL.
32 Captain Mortlake Sagala 242-7. Sagala also discusses the troupes 1882 schedule (345) and Codys acting background (38-52). I believe Lockhart saw Cody in 1882 because this is the first year she is known to have been in Illinois, and the Sterling Gazette 9/14/82 noted Codys presence in the city (though he was probably just passing through on a train, the notice would have built interest in the nearby shows). She might also have seen the troupe in Topeka in October, 1881, or in tours through Illinois and Iowa 1883-6.
33 indulgence of intoxicants. Janesville (Wis.) Daily Gazette, 9/1/82, quoted in Sagala 243.
34 Imagine Julius Caesar Sagala 67
36 Bethany College Mrs. Augustus Wilson; Greene. Remember the name ProutyLockhart did.
36 Sarah Lockhart developed a fever OCP, 9/15/88; OCC, 9/6/88
37 Caroline would claim CL, untitled memoir, CLC 1:10 folder 4.
37 Few knew she was ill OCC 9/6/88.
38 January 3, 1889 OCC, 10/4/88 and 1/3/89.
38 My feet sunk deep CL, untitled memoir, CLC 1:10 folder 4.
38 out-size calaboose. CL, untitled memoir, CLC 1:10 folder 4.
39 The Moravian Seminary Moravian Seminary catalog, 1889. Italics in original.
39 The girls I met CL, untitled memoir, CLC 1:10 folder 4.
40 Augusta Packer CL, untitled memoir, CLC 1:10 folder 4; Ava Bretzik (Asa Packer Mansion Museum, Jim Thorpe, PA) personal communications, 4/2004.
41 with cousins and aunts My First Proposal; Moss; Ferguson.
41 Sa-ay, do you know My First Proposal.
42 I learned to make Vassar fudge CL, untitled memoir, CLC 1:9, also quoted in Furman 8.
42 keep us out of the poor house. CL, untitled memoir, CLC 1:10 folder 4.
43 I opened the letter CL, untitled memoir, CLC 1:10 folder 4.
44 Their wedding was a brief, SG 3/14/90.
44 and with a childs intuition CL, untitled memoir, CLC 1:10 folder 4.
44 Mrs. J.C. Lockhart. ES, 12/16/37 in CLC 2:6.
46 There is not a city CL, The Boston Girls Innocent Bohemia, BP 3/1/1896, CLC 2:4. Subsequent quotes in this section are from the same source.
49 My enthusiasm for a career CL, untitled memoir, in CLC 1:10. Closser had a long stage career, see http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0167113/ (accessed 5/5/05).
50 it was clear CL, untitled memoir, in CLC 1:10.
50 Rosedale CLC 2:6. Though the clipping is undated, it must be 1894 because it refers to Friday, Jan. 12. The play opened in Boston in May, 1893 (Rosedale at Grand Opera House, Boston Herald 5/30/93, Harvard Theater Collection, Cambridge, Mass.).
51 came out of clear sky CL, untitled memoir, in CLC 1:10, folder 6.
51 Nellie Bly was making CL, untitled memoir, in CLC 1:10, folder 4. It may be that Lockhart minimized her years in the theater to imply that shed been directly inspired by Blys famous trip, rather than entering the field five years later.
51 A newspaper of the early 1890s Kroeger, Teachout, Ross.
52 Edwin Grozier Staples 11-18.
52 girl reporter Nellie Bly Kroeger.
54 February 11, 1894 BP, Boston Public Library.
54 Cub in, CL, Stage-struck girls, BP undated, CLC 2:6. Subsequent quotes in this section are from the same source, with original spellings. Most of the clippings in Lockharts scrapbooks lack dates, and the 1890s Post is not indexed, so I have made my best guess as to the order of their publication.
58 Fancy Slippers and Shoes CLC 2:6. The clippings are undated, but clearly disprove the stories Lockhart told in her late-life memoirs about getting the job based on a single interview.
59 Her stunts included All of the articles mentioned in these two paragraphs are collected in CLC 2:4 and 2:6.
59 If the boat had not been CL, A Sail boat during a blizzard, BP undated, CLC 2:4.
60 I felt very happy and important CL, untitled memoir, in CLC 1:10, folder 4, p. 23.
60 how their relationship started CL, untitled memoir, in CLC 1:10, folder 4, p. 23; MCoys Fight undated, unsourced, CLC 2:4; First of the Season undated, unsourced, CLC 2:4.
60 McKenzie A.C. MKenzie, writer, dead unsourced, undated (1908?) clip in CLC 2:5. Also Ellen E. Knight (Winchester, Mass., historical society), personal correspondence, 1/10/2003.
60 Hunting for the Festive Rabbit CL, Hunting for the Festive Rabbit, undated, unsourced, CLC 2:4. Subsequent quotes in this section are from the same source.
61 William Woods Apologize! and Woods is Sorry BP undated, CLC 2:6. Subsequent quotes in this section are from the same sources.
62 Champion Fat Boy of the World CL, Champion Fat Boy of the World, undated, unsourced, CLC 2:4.
63 freaks on display at a museum CL, Museum Boardinghouse undated BP CLC 2:4. In her late-life memoirs Lockhart claimed, incorrectly, that this assignment served as a sort of interview/test for Post employment. Indeed the memoir accountwhich has been widely retold as indicative of her journalism careercontains several fabrications and omits the very empathy that strikes me as the articles best quality.
64 Buffalo Bill CL, She Rides a Broncho, undated, unsourced, CLC 2:6. Subsequent quotes in this section are from the same source. It must be 1895 because Cody was in New Hampshire on July 4, 1895: see notes on photo NS-227 in the Denver Public Library.
65 now only in the South Quoted in Garceaus essay in Basso, 163. See also Frantz & Choate, and Etulains Wister.
68 Naskeag Point CL, Lost in the Fog, Sunday Post, 7/7/1895, CLC 2:6. Subsequent quotes in this section are from the same source. The story is probably exaggerated (did she really land back on the same island after 20 minutes?), but the memory of being lost in the fog lasted like truth: she covered it again in her old-age memoir. Not surprisingly the details in the contemporaneous version are richer.
69 Bar Harbor CL, untitled memoir, in CLC 1:10, folder 6, pp. 30-33. Naskeag Point is the next big peninsula southeast of Bar Harbor.
71 furriner CL, untitled memoir, in CLC 1:10, folder 6, p. 31. Sadly, she never tried her hand at capturing a DownMaine accent.
71 He is thinking of his life CL, Her Bucking Broncho, BP undated (but datelined Naskeag Point July 20), CLC 2:6. In the memoir she claims Buffalo Bill gave her the horse in appreciation for her story; the article says she bought it. In the article, she and Kid travel by boat to Naskeag, though her memoirs dont mention Kid, and say she took the train. The detail in the article makes me believe its largely true, though she never again mentions owning a horse back East.
73 bored but unable Kroeger 250. See also 180-192 and 223-4.
73 There is no vocation Cahoon. Subsequent quotes in this section are from the same source. To me, Cahoons article reads as if she relied entirely on a single stunt girl.
75 money ran out Letter, John E. Wilkie to CL, 7/5/00, CLC 1:6.
75 Mexico Hicks 14-16.
75 Vance Galloway CLC 1:5. Vance Galloway (1858-1941) was a county clerk in Transylvania county, NCsee http://www.rootsweb.com/~nctransy/resources/vital/DeathCert/1916tvdc/1916tvdcIndex.htm (accessed 5/5/05). Remember the nameLockhart did.
75 Labrador Dominick 14, Furman 18-19.
75 Hillsboro CL, 1898 diaries, CLC 1:17. The Watchman was the Boston Baptist newspaper where McKenzie had started his career.
76 her later diaries CL, Diaries 2/25/29.
77 Ava Willing CL, untitled memoir, in CLC 1:10. See also Dominick 11-13; Furman 22-23; http://www.geocities.com/Athens/Delphi/2115/trivia3.htm (accessed 5/5/05).
79 correct, conservative, and noncommittal Ross 518.
79 the maddest, gladdest, Mencken Days ix. See also Teachout 46-51.
80 Dora Cooperstein CL, A young girl under a spell PB undated, CLC 2:4
82 My dear newsboys CL, My Dear Newsboys PB undated, CLC 2:4.
82 advice column Ross, 79-82. See also Kroeger, 459.
82 any time that you are out CL in PB, 2/13/03, CLC 2:4.
83 William Jennings Bryan CL, Suzette Makes the Trip Through Delaware with William Jennings Bryan CLC 2:4.
83 cigar factory CL, Suzette Trying Her Hand at Cigarmaking; Finds It Rather Pleasant Than Otherwise PB undated, CLC 2:5.
84 Suzettes Stories of Everyday Life CLC 2:5.
85 She had just arrived in Paris CL, Suzette Finds Paris and Parisians Not All Her Fond Fancy Painted, PB, 7/14/00, CLC 2:4. Subsequent quotes in this section are from the same source.
86 Ferdinand Peck CL, Suzette sees the Lafayette statue unveiled by Americans in Paris, undated but datelined Paris July 5, CLC 2:4.
87 Oberammergau CL, Suzette sees the passion play and admires its fervent dignity, undated but datelined Oberammergau July 23, CLC 2:4. Also CL, Suzette Takes a Plunge in the Surf In a Bathing Suit She Doesnt Approve Of, undated but datelined Ostend Sept. 13, CLC 2:5.
87 Casino de Paris CL, Suzette has an experience with a typical Paris cabman, undated but datelined Paris Sept 8, CLC 2:4. Subsequent quotes in this section are from the same source. She wrote about the incident in many of her draft memoirs, with reduced detail and flavor.
88 1900 censustaker Cited in Furman 21.
88 we had pigs feet CL, The Sign that Failed undated, unsourced, CLC 1:11.
89 There are women of brains and character CL, Uncle Jerry Roths Bill to Tax Spinsters Arouses Indignation in True Womanly Hearts, undated, unsourced, CLC 2:4.
89 Jack Painter PCHA biographical files; Carrey and Conley; Hicks Park County Story 166
90 I have a plan Undated note preserved in CLC 2:6
90 Walnuts and Wine Various clips, CLC 2:4, 2:5, and 2:6. Though unsigned, the piece about Labrador has to be Lockharts; the others bear her style and have been pasted in her scrapbook.
91 Her Maiden Name Lippincotts June 1901, 745-55, CLC 2:6. This was not literally Lockharts first published fiction, merely the first in such a major magazine. Her scrapbooks identify The Greengrocery Man, an 1893 sketch in a Boston magazine called The Orphans Bouquet as my first published story. Also, Minz note (below) references a story called The Alkahest, apparently published in some other magazine in February of 1900.
92 Minz The letter is preserved in one of Lockharts scrapbooks, in CLC 2:6.
92 The Cowboy Girl undated, unsourced, untitled clipping, CLC 2:4. The typeface resembles Lockharts Lippincotts clips.
93 A Girl in the Rockies Lippincotts 08/02, CLC 1:5. Its difficult to analyze how much of this is fiction, since the points of comparison (Lockharts other accounts of her trip) also may be partially fictionalized. Lockhart herself may not have cared for the literal truth so much as she cared to equate horseback stories of adventure with the West.
93 not yet 60 Lockhart quoted in Dominick 15; St. Marys township 1900 census data, MHS; Swift Current Courier 9/1/00.
94 frontier I am especially indebted to the work of Richard Slotkin. See Fatal and Gunfighter.
96 train robber A Train Robber Makes a Call on Suzette in her Rocky Mountain Home, undated, unsourced, but probably Lippincotts, CLC 2:4. Again its difficult to distinguish fact from fiction; I believe the cabin (see Guthrie 80) and dialogue were real, but the train robberies were not.
96 picture on a wall Handwritten note (Dominick annotation) on Dominick 15.
97 Im going to see my grandma, CL memoir quoted in Dominick 19-21. Suzette Visits Grandma Mountain Chicken, undated, unsourced, but probably Lippincotts, CLC 2:4, may be more accurate on the details.
97 symbolic baggage Lamont Native American 385.
97 LaMott Henry Paul Boyle (LaMotts grandson), personal communication, 9/25/03; Jack Holterman, Carrasco; Blackfeet Genealogy 402-4. Jennies father, John LaMott, part Mohawk and French originally from Oswego, New York, had met everyone from Abraham Lincoln to Charlie Russell to the outlaw Kid Curry. Her mother, Sally Carrasco, was of Blackfeet and Mexican descent. Spellings of LaMott and Carrasco vary.
98 Do they live Suzette Visits Grandma Mountain Chicken.
99 fill an artist with delight Suzette Visits Grandma Mountain Chicken. The article calls Jennie Louise, but it also appears to be using pseudonyms for Weasel Widow (Grandma Mountain Chicken) and Four Horns (Uncle Red Horns).
100 Straight as a String, undated, unsourced, CLC 1:5 (for the beginning of the story) and 1:6 (for the end). Yates Lockhart dates it as November 1902, as does a handwritten note on a 10/17/38 letter from New York researcher Morgan Cunnington, in CLC 1:9.
101 Edith Wharton and Willa Cather Lamont Writing 87.
102 Local Notes unsourced clippings, likely from CE, 10/19/04, from a scrapbook belonging to Agnes Chamberlain, quoted in Hicks 26 and Furman 37.
103 spent the winter ES 4/13/05.
104 Cody Furman 37-42; Hicks 26-33; Hicks Park County 15, 52; Patrick Three Women 1-11; Bonner.
105 a typically frontier town CL, untitled memoir beginning It is now ancient history, CLC 1:10.
106 I like this country, Young Wyoming Girl is Creator of Me-Smith, Denver Times May 18, 1912, quoted in Culpin 8 and Furman 41.
106 purchased a house Hicks 27; Rosetta Greenfield, Lockhart House - Research 5/20/88 typescript in the Lockhart file, PCHA.
107 McKenzie moved on The postcard is in CLC 2:5. His death is in A.C. MKenzie, writer, dead an undated, unsourced obituary in CLC 2:5. It must be 1908 because it says McKenzie was 37 and the Winchester Historical Society has records indicating he was born in 1871. The obituary also says McKenzie wandered half a dozen years in search of health to South Carolina, Wyoming, [and] New Mexico.
107 Suzette Tells about the Man Hunt CL, Suzette Tells about the Man Hunt and Hold Up at Cody unsourced clipping datelined Philadelphia Nov 13, CLC 1:11. Furman 42-44 independently verifies factual details and pinpoints the date as Nov. 1, 1904. Subsequent quotes in this section are from the same source.
107 The artist, in the course Mary Hallock Foote, quoted in Casey Bush, Artist-Author Mary Hallock Foote and her Angle of Repose Oregon Cultural Heritage Commission, 2003, http://www.ochcom.org/foote (5/10/2005).
108 Suzette goes on a Hunt CL, Suzette goes on a Hunt with Buffalo Bill, Philadelphia Press, 2/5/05, CLC 2:6. For resentment of Buffalo Bill, see Harvey 34 and the Northern Wyoming Daily News, 8/27/53, in JAP folder 6.
110 When Autymobile Struck Town CL, When Autymobile Struck Town, Denver Times, April 10, no year given. PCL Lockhart vertical file; also reprinted in Hicks 34-36. Furman 178 identifies it as first appearing in the Philadelphia North American in 1905.
110 Mine Albert Heimer Furman 44-5; Hicks 49. Albert Heimer was a real bartender who loved the publicity, highlighting this alter ego in advertising for his bar. The Old Cattleman was widely accepted to be perfect mimicry of a rancher named Sam Aldrich.
111 Daisy Beck Beck files, PCHA. Lockhart, Lane, and three other women are pictured riding together in a CLC photograph reprinted in both Furman and Hicks.
111 1906 CE 6/14/06, quoted in Hicks 40.
112 They are all pretty good riders Leaphart diary, 7/28/05, Montana Episodes: Wheelmen in Yellowstone, 1905 edited by Susan Leaphart, Montana: The Magazine of Western History 31(4) pp. 48-9.
113 The Second Star CL, The Second Star: A Mormon Story Lippincotts June, 1905, in CLC 1:5.
114 settings See His Own Medicine, Lippincotts, 10/05 CLC 1:5; Docs Beau, The Railroad Mans Magazine, 10/06 CLC 1:5; The Woman Who Gave No Quarter, Lippincotts 2/07 CLC 1:5 and 1:11; Gustave Hinkle: Martyr, Lippincotts, 6/07 CLC 1:5; The Dude Wrangler, The Red Book Magazine, 11/07 CLC 1:5; The Pin-Head, Lippincotts 10/08 CLC 1:5; Stag Hound Bill Lippincotts, 3/05 and discussed on Yates Lockhart 11.
114 Docs Beau Docs Beau, The Railroad Mans Magazine, 10/06 CLC 1:5.
115 The Woman Who Gave No Quarter The Woman Who Gave No Quarter, Lippincotts 2/07 CLC 1:5 and 1:11.
116 John L. Smith Billings (Mont.) Gazette, June 16 & 17, 1926, and Feb. 23, 1926. Diaries 2/25/29.
117 Cleaned up for a photograph The photo, labeled in Lockharts handwriting Only known picture of Squaw Smith (Me-Smith), is in box 1 folder 15, LFC.
117 Smith is somewhere near CL, Codys Bad Man Runs to Escape a Few Stones, undated, unsourced clipping, CLC 2:4. As literal nonfiction, the piece strains credulity; its likely one of Lockharts half-invented sketches. Subsequent quotes in this section are from the same source.
118 killed an unarmed man John Clayton, The Trials of John L. Smith, Montana: The Magazine of Western History, fall 2004.
119 Me-Smith See CLC 2:5, including New York Times 2/12/11.
119 Im a killer CL, Me-Smith 17.
119 She sat her sturdy, spirited pony CL, Me-Smith 20.
120 Say, girl CL, Me-Smith 24-5.
120 New York Times NYT 3/19/11, CLC 2:5. Though the clipping is undated, Furman 178 provides the date. New York Globe, 3/11/11, in CLC 2:5.
121 Owen Wister Basso 1-6; Slotkin Gunfighter 83, 104, 156-60, 179; Johnson 497; Etulain Wister 33, Etulain Writing, Etulain Telling 77, Frantz 158.
123 Dora CL, Me-Smith 64-5. See also Yates Lockhart 15-17.
124 Say, I can tie CL, Me-Smith 100. The subsequent quotes are from pp. 113 (a-hatchin), 152 (laig), 114 (heterogeneity), 118 (plains), and 315 (died).
125 In fiction that country Review of Reviews (New York), June 1911, in CLC 2:4.
125 However, in some wonderful way, Birmingham News, 3/25/11, in CLC 2:5.
125 Hatin makes you smart CL, Me-Smith 186. For mixed-blood heroines, see Yates Lockhart 17-18; the most famous was Helen Hunt Jacksons Ramona.
126 It is worth noticing New York Tribune, 3/5/11, in CLC 2:5.
126 Bertha Muzzy Bower I am especially indebted to the work of Victoria Lamont; see Writing 139-157. Also Engen; Davison; Houston. Engen (vii) makes the claim that publishers actively masked Bowers gender; later sources counter that it was not a cover-up. However, given contemporary critics reactions to Lockhart (frequently discussing her gender, without mentioning Bower), it seems to me that indeed the effect of Bowers publishers actions was widespread ignorance that she was a woman.
128 Mary Hallock Foote Lamont, Writing 79-97; Miller.
128 In Exile, Foote, In Exile, from In Exile, and Other Stories (1894) accessed at http://ia200018.eu.archive.org/hdd1/texts/8exil/8exil10.txt on 5/13/2005. Foote, Maverick, from The Cup of Trembling, and Other Stories (1895) accessed at http://www.traverse.com/people/dot/maverick1.html on 5/11/2005.
129 Foote welcomed Wister Lamont, Writing 114
129 The Rustler Lamont, Writing 36-67; Frantz 161.
130 Popular magazine Lamont, Writing 146-150 discusses Bower. For the 1919 publication of The Wolf Pack (an excerpt from The Fighting Shepherdess), Populars editors note read, We consider it an event when a novel of Caroline Lockharts comes into our hands. She is one of the few women who get our story angle, and she is one of the few writers of either sex with a strong sense of humor. In this novel she has set for herself a tremendous task which we think she has achieved most creditably. Faint praise for an author with several bestsellers under her beltand it still doesnt legitimate her expertise.
130 Once upon a time Boston Globe, undated clipping in CLC 2:5.The publicity photo is in the same scrapbook.
130 Denver Times Young Wyoming Girl is creator of Me-Smith Denver Times undated (though Furman cites it as 5/18/12), CLC 2:5.
132 His escape from Cole, D.W, 4/8/1908 letter to H.N. Savage, Department of Interior Supervising Engineer, copy in CLC 2:1. (Lockhart or a friend apparently retyped several letters so as to have a record of them.) Ferkos name is variously spelled Ferco, Furko, Marco, etc.
132 I say, What about the leg? Marko Ferko Damage Suit, undated, unsourced clipping in CLC 2:6.
135 affidavits The affidavits (including the darning needle quote) are quoted in Dominick Introduction 37-46 and summarized in Furman 53-58.
135 out for the stuff! CL, Back of this petition& an undated, untitled, unsourced manuscript in CLC 2:1, which is surely Lockharts draft of the introductory material to the Denver News exposť. Furman 55 (Hering).
135 youngish and not ill-looking. CL, untitled memoir, CLC 1:10, a page beginning It is now ancient history& For Lanes background, see her biographical file in PCHA and Cody Community Mourns Death of Pioneer and Physician, Dr. Frances M. Lane, an undated, unsourced obituary in CLC 2:6.
136 Before publishing Copy of letter from the Mayor of Cody, Wyoming, to the Denver News 11/18/1907, typescript in CLC 2:1. I have fixed some misspellings in the unedited draft.
137 Billings (Mont.) Gazette Patrick, Best Little 118. Though Patrick does not document the retraction nor indicate that Lockhart wrote the article, the S.L. Wiley letter cited below refers to a charge emanating from some inconscionable female as exhibited in the Billings Gazette. That has to be Lockhart.
138 John Wilkie Letters from Wilkie, on federal letterhead, to CL, 2/19/08, 4/18/08, and 6/08, in CLC 1:6 and 2:1. (Furman cites them in 1:7.) He alludes to an attached report, but it is not with the other papers. See also Lockharts Almost 50 years later memoir in CLC 2:1.
138 reputation for surgical work. D.W Cole, 4/8/08 letter to H.N. Savage, Department of Interior Supervising Engineer, copy in CLC 2:1.
139 never yet heard a single complaint S.L. Wiley, 3/30/08 letter to J. Ahern, copy in CLC 2:1. See also Cole 4/8/08.
139 alleged troubles and dissatisfaction Letter from Lane-Bradbury hospital, date obscured, copy in CLC 2:1.
139 whitewashed that pair Diaries 1/9/33.
140 suing the Lane-Bradbury hospital Doctors Face Damage Suit, unsourced clipping datelined Cody Feb. 7, CLC 2:6. It must be 1909 because the author refers to the 1908 government investigation in the past tense.
141 witnesses had left the country Marko Ferko Damage Suit
141 For nearly two years Doctors Face Damage Suit. Denoument is spelled that way in the original.
141 Scopes trial Teachout 217-8
142 Yes, we went at night Much Interest Is Shown, undated, unsourced clipping in CLC 2:6.
143 circulars were distributed Unsourced, undated clippings, CLC 2:5. Also CE 6/25/09, quoted in Hicks 659-60.
144 No author to-day untitled, undated, unsourced clipping, CLC 2:5.
144 The publication this Fall Bookseller, Newsdealer, and Stationer, 10/1/12, CLC 2:5.
144 Dr. Harpe arose CL, The Lady Doc 17-18.
144 abortion Yates Gender 44.
145 Crowheart CL, The Lady Doc 20.
145 There were no covert glances CL, The Lady Doc 27. The following quotes are from pp. 27 (mediocre), 102 (eggs), 70 (church bells), 30 (hand over fist), 18 (Freoffs), 64 (Tisdale), 66 (lonesome as the deuce and Public Opinion), and 130-2 (Gussie).
146 satire Teachout 177-8, Yates Lockhart 12.
148 first unambiguous delineation of a lesbian Yates Lockhart 23-4.
149 homosexuality DEmilio and Freedman 122-130; Boag.
150 a disappointing story New York Life, 5/1/13; Detroit Journal, 12/6/12; New York Sun, 10/12/12; Philadelphia Press, 10/5/12; all in CLC 2:5.
151 One could get a fight Hicks 48. CL memoir quoted in Dominick Introduction 45 (Jean dArc).
151 Cody newspapers Park County Herald, 11/15/12; CE, 11/13/12 & 3/13/12, all in PCL.
154 Riders of the Purple Sage Grey. Quotes from pp. 8 (gun-man), 9 (Maam), 10 (outgrowed), and 4 (grove).
155 formula Slotkin Gunfighter 212-7, Tompkins 157-177, Gruber.
156 Let me out! CL, The Full of the Moon, pp. 79-80. Subsequent: 8 (fling), 86 (coming), 87-8 (towering), 265-6 (typifies), 89 (plebian), 207 (greaser), 11-12 (sempstress).
158 she was a snob Hicks 38.
160 The situations are impossible Minneapolis Journal, 4/7/14, and Chicago Journal, 3/21/14 (charm), both in CLC 2:5
161 uncouth and disrespectful Diaries 4/7/1898, CLC 1:17. The full context is: Mr. H came in for his coat. When he left he poked his finger under my chin and made a dab at my wishbone. I am displeased. It was at once uncouth and disrespectful. I am annoyed that I think about him but I do. He seems to fascinate me. The first man I have been interested in for months since Sweetie in fact. I must avoid him. It is not honorable to Sweetie. The other New Mexico stories are The Child of Nature, New Idea Womans Magazine, 9/04, pp. 43-4, CLC 1:11, and The Cinderella of El Cinco undated, unsourced, CLC 2:5.
162 as for the young lady New York Times, March 1, 1914.
162 Jack Painter Hicks 575-7; Carrey & Conley 174-5; Greenfield; Furman 47-50; unsourced material in Painters PCHA biographical file.
164 Honest, now, CL, The Wildest Boat Ride in America, The Outing Magazine LIX: 5, February 1912, pp. 515-524, CLC 1:7. (Its reprinted in full in Carrey and Conley 30-44.) Pizen is poison. Subsequent quotes in this section are from the same source, which strikes me as quite factual, not fictionalized. Additional material: CL, Washing Out a Pin for Father, Philadelphia North American, August 27, 1911, CLC 2:5; Jones; Carrey and Conley 174-5; Furman 68-73; Hicks 575-7.
166 gold Washing Out a Pin for Father says Eakin, Painters predecessor, discovered gold dust in his peach orchard. Carrey and Conley say that Johnny McKay found coarse gold along the left bank of the river, and not being a hardrock miner& informed J.R. [Painter] of the likely prospect. (p. 175). Carrey and Conley say Painter got his money from the DuPont family, but other sources mention the Villard family.
171 I am trying to Quoted in Montgomery Advertiser, 2/2/12, in CLC 2:5. The snapshots are also in CLC 2:5. Subsequent quotes in this section are from Washing Out a Pin for Father.
173 passed through Elk City The News of Elk City, Idaho County Free Press, 11/14/12, quoted in Furman 183. I dont read too much into the papers reference to Philadelphia as her home. Other reports, including all the publicity for her books from 1911 to 1914, say Cody is her home. Esenweins autograph is in CLC 1:13. The Kingston visit (her fathers sister Isabelle Darte lived there) is in CLC 2:5.
173 A one-act play. CLC 1:7. The script is not dated, nor does it give a complete address for Lockhart. Because of its simplistic plot, I believe the script pre-dates her novel The Man from the Bitter Roots.
174 she is very seldom at home Jeannette Gilder, Chicago Tribune, 3/21/14, in CLC 2:5.
176 wanton slaughter CL, The Man from the Bitter Roots 31.
177 Theres a hundred square miles CL, The Man from the Bitter Roots 32.
177 left Idaho for Cody Miss Lockhart in Search of Material, CE 12/24/13, quoted in Hicks 52.
178 La Ceiba Humphrey; Langley & Schoonover; http://www.unitedfruit.org/chronology.html (accessed 5/19/2005). CL, untitled memoir 69-70, CLC 1:9.
179 a piffling mind CL, Honduras Report Conjures Pictures of Other Revolts Denver Post undated, CLC 2:6.
180 We were still some distance CL, untitled memoir 69-70, CLC 1:9. I have fixed some misspellings in the unedited draft. Suzette Loses Novel in Ocean, Philadelphia Bulletin, 4/5/14, CLC 2:5 and quoted in Culpin 11.
181 Nicaragua Berman; Langley & Schoonover; http://historicaltextarchive.com/sections.php?op=viewarticle&artid=364 (accessed 5/19/2005). Furman 73 discusses the views of Painters descendants, as well as an alleged contract Borah secured for Painter to supply cement for the construction of the Nicaraguan canal; I can believe there was some sort of contract, but the canal was never close to construction.
181 both a capsizing and a fire Both accounts boast the tiny details and sharp imagery that usually signify Lockharts personal witness of an event. Because she told the capsizing story first, Im tempted to give it more credence. But CLC 2:5 contains several pictures of fire-charred Central American ruins, including one labeled Where Bitter Roots went up in smoke.
182 one of the best long stories A Chat with You, Popular Magazine, undated but probably 8/7/15, CLC 2:5. Subsequent reviews: NYC Bookseller, 11/15/15 (real stuff); Grand Rapids News 12/22/15 (unfair); Boston Evening Transcript, 11/17/15 (drivel); unsourced, undated (happy faculty); Boston Globe, 11/20/15 (for this); Chicago Continental 12/16/15 (decidedly); Philadelphia Evening Telegraph, 12/23/15 (man writers); all in CLC 2:5.
183 1916 movie http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0002177/bio; http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0267912/bio; http://www.afi.com/members/catalog/DetailView.aspx?s=1&Movie=16758 (all accessed 5/13/2005)
183 Marjory Ross CE obituary 12/30/64; http://lcweb2.loc.gov/service/mss/eadxmlmss/eadpdfmss/2003/ms003077.pdf (accessed 5/12/05). Furman 51, citing interviews with various Codyites, describes Ross as small [and] attractive. Some legal documents spell Ross name Margery, but I will follow Lockharts and most other Codyites lead in using Marjory. Fees has already in print characterized Ross and Lane as lesbians, but I nevertheless tread on their privacy with much regret and unease.
186 She was sixty CL memoir quoted in Dominick Introduction 25. Subsequent quotes in this section are from the same source, except for Get off which is quoted in Furman 77. (Furman 77-81 and Hicks 58-60 apparently rely on slightly different versions of the memoir.) I have fixed some misspellings in the unedited draft.
186 a fighting face. Walker 41. For Moores life, see Milek 58-62, Walker 35-41, and especially Morrison.
189 black M on the front. CL memoir quoted in Dominick Introduction 25. Subsequent quotes in this section are from the same source, and I have fixed misspellings.
190 She greased the wheels CL memoir quoted in Dominick 26.
191 fancy fruits and jellies Walker 39-40. Writing in 1936, Walker (a woman herself) said, Being a woman, she was naturally taken advantage of by her working men.
191 factual story of Lucy Morrison Moore Morrison. This memoir by the Sheep Queens daughter-in-law is based on her own contemporaneous diary, as well as a lifetime of knowledge of the Morrison-Moore clanqualities Lockharts memoirs lack.
193 I like people Morrison 68.
195 I hate you! CL, Fighting Shepherdess 4. Subsequent quotes in this section are from pp. 16 (Prouty), 294 (nitrogen), 47 (sharer), 148 (sordid), 237-8 (cinch), 245 (paradise), 248-9 (goal), 249 (helpless), 369 (indifference), 370 (go on). You may recall the real-life S.S. Prouty, a trustee at Lockharts Topeka high school.
196 Seth Arthur Ash S.A. Ash, Manager of the Western Drug Co., Assassinated, [Cody] Stockgrower and Farmer, 12/10/09, PCHA Ash files. Also Wyoming Editor Recalls Murder of Grass Creek Oil Worker, CE 2/4/42. In 1922 Lampitt was convicted of another murder, amidst much press attention that labeled him the model for Mullendore. Dorothy Newton later ran her own sheep ranch and may have served as an additional model for Kate (Gretchen Kuiper, personal correspondence, 9/15/2005).
204 the old fighting look Walker 41
207 Grace Edgington Diaries, quoted in Hicks 89-90. Subsequent quotes in this section (as well as Lockharts thoughts, occasionally presented without quotation marks) are from the same source, pp. 87-92. Also: Ramona Warren interview, Eskridge, KS, 4/22/03.
207 breezy tolerance Quoted in Hicks 87-8.
209 Philadelphia Diaries quoted in Hicks 89-90, including thoughts and all direct quotes. The context confirms this is Philadelphia.
210 terminating a pregnancy Diaries 5/24/34.
212 Boston Diaries quoted in Hicks 91-100, including direct quotes on pp. 96-8. In Jenkins defense, he may have seen a very rough draft. Mencken scholars can find no record of Lockhart, but note that not all of his prolific correspondence survives. Hicks transcribed the Popular author as Rames, which I assume is Raine though I cant pinpoint the story Lockhart refers to. Lockhart uses no pronoun to refer to Bower, so its unclear whether she knew Bower was female. For Lippincott, see Hicks 148.
215 shelp me, Diaries, quoted in Hicks 103.
216 O.B. Mann Furman 86, Hicks 565-6
217 Id murder for you! Diaries 10/21/18, quoted in Hicks 122. Subsequent diary quotes: 10/27/18 on p. 124 (book coming out), 11/27/18 on p. 130 (too foolish), 7/8/18 on p. 100 (made my boast), and 7/13/18 on p. 101 (ruination).
220 Guess I look like Diaries 1/22/19 quoted in Hicks 135. See also Furman 47.
221 I can write circles Quoted in Hicks 133. Subsequent diary quote: 1/22/19 on p. 136 (wrinkled dame), 2/27/19 on p. 140 (anything), 1/14/19 on p. 134 (sweetest ever), 2/5/19 on p. 137 (heartache), 1/22/19 on p. 135 (knocker), 1/22/19 on p. 136 (Lothario), and 1/14/19 on p.135 (never a man).
222 Kaiser CL, Why Fuss over Kaiser? Denver Post 12/29/18, quoted in Furman 95-6. Lockharts other Post articles are mentioned in Hicks 133-146 and/or collected in CLC 2:4 and 2:6.
223 Lockhart paced Hicks 142-5. The suggestion that Lockhart act is in her diary for 12/23/18, a typescript in PCHA. Diary quotes: 3/9/19 in Hicks pp. 142-3 (chum, snake, bad as I am), 3/12/19 on p. 143 (no hope), 3/18/19 on p. 144 (my own boob), and 3/24/19 on p. 145 (unpolished).
226 Would he ever show up? Hicks 147-51.
226 reviews Hicks 148-9; reviews clipped in CLC 2:4. Lockharts diary misquoted the Sun; I used the original. The letters from friends are in Lockharts diary entries for 3/27/19 and 3/30/19, PCHA typescript.
228 Mrs. Baconrind CL, Getting Atmosphere, a manuscript in CLC 1:9, reprinted in Hicks 609-615. According to Furmans notes (LFC box 1, folder 9), a version of this story appeared in the Denver Post magazine, 12/14 and 12/19, 1920. Especially compared to her diary entries, the piece engenders my skepticism. Though probably correct in broad outlines, it likely played (even subconsciously) to societal stereotypes of Native Americans.
229 grossly fat, vain, arrogant. Getting Atmosphere. Subsequent quotes in this section are from the same source.
230 Osage Wilson, McAuliffe.
233 Lockhart lay in the tent Diaries quoted in Hicks 151-9. Direct quotes: undated on p. 152 (outdoor living), 5/25/19 on pp. 156-7 (far above me, self-abnegation, Belasco).
236 newspaper report Fairfax, Okla., Chief, May 18, 1919, reprinted in Hicks 155-6. The what satisfaction quote: Diaries 6/13/19 on p. 162.
239 Douglas Fairbanks Noted Cody Authoress Receives Big Offer from Doug Fairbanks, CE 7/23/19, reprinted in Hicks 172. Using terminology common to the era, the article refers to screenplays as scenarios. Lockhart was the source for this story; her monetary figures are completely absurd. See Hicks 170-172.
240 Dude ranches My claim that no author had published dude-ranch fiction before Lockhart is based on a search for stories with Dude in the title in the comprehensive database at users.ev1.net/~homeville/fictionmag/ (12/8/2004). Thats not foolproof, but Yates (Lockhart 36) leans toward the same conclusion.
242 epithet of opprobrium CL, The Dude Wrangler 35. Subsequent quotes in this section are from 7 (she was young) and 158 (duder). See also Hicks 180.
246 brightest newspaper woman Diaries 6/26/19 quoted in Hicks 96.
247 Caroline Lockharts living room Diaries, 4/22/20, 4/27/20; CE 5/5/20 (which contains the quotes), 4/4/34, and 6/29/38; Furman 110-113; CLC pictures reprinted in Hicks 80-81; Larom bio file, PCHA. CL untitled memoir in CLC 1:10, p. 1, contains the rodeo quote. Eldridge 2 has the physical description.
250 Doc Bennett Murray (fastest doc p. 42); Boyett 6; CE 5/12/20 (that letter of yours); Diaries 4/29/20 and 5/6/20 (power and prestige).
255 Everybody grins Diaries 6/12/20 (grins), and 7/4/20 (headline); CE 6/2/20 (horse& rider) and 6/16/20 (wild man).
257 Ladies and Gentlemen! Diaries and CEs, July 1920.
259 movie of The Fighting Shepherdess Diaries 3/4/20; Diaries July 1920; Hicks 188-9.
260 Am out of a job, Diaries and CEs, May-Oct 1920.
264 Cody Stampede ball CE 11/3/20, plus Diaries 10/24/20 and 11/8/20.
267 but fear of talk Diaries, Oct 1920Feb 1921 including quotes from 10/27/20 (talk), 2/15/21 (cheap), 11/23/20 (good).
269 sheriff for breakfast! Diaries Jan-Mar 1921, including quotes from 2/17/21 (breakfast) and 2/11/21 (churches). Also CE 6/14/22.
272 second annual Stampede Diaries Mar-July 1921, including quotes on 3/31/21 (reaper), 5/22/21 (ignoramus), and 5/4/21 (Ye gods). CE 2/9/21 (best man win).
275 Mr. Webb Adams CE, June 29, 1921. Diaries May-July 1921, including quotes on 6/21/21 (Nobody), 6/30/21 (worse), and 7/26/21 (financially).
277 Mr. S.A. Nock CE, 8/10/21. Diaries July-Sept 1921, including quote from 8/8/21 (pride).
279 Hairbreadth Harry CE 10/12/21; Dominick 53-4. Diaries Oct-Dec 1921; including quote from 11/20/21 (irritating).
281 The lady editor was wet! CL untitled memoir, CLC 1:10, folder 6, p. 106. Diaries 9/18/21 (cut ice). CE 11/26/21, 6/21/22 (good by law), 4/19/22 (Omaha), 5/31/22 (Cullen). I was skeptical that she coined the aphorism until realizing that C.S. Lewis gets credit for coining You cannot make men good by lawin 1952.
284 vulgar, obscene, coarse, ribald, I am especially indebted to the work of Frank Boyett. See pp. 9-12. Also File 890, Park County Closed Civil Cases; Diaries 5/20/22.
286 installing myself there. Diaries 1/16/21, 3/2/21 (fascinating), 10/16/21 (God-damn). Kroger 305-364, Ross 458. The scant record of independent female editor/publishers before 1950 includes Mary Ann Shadd Cary and Ida B. Wells.
288 theyre on the jury. CEs 1/26/22 and 2/1/22 (knitting).
290 June Little CE 2/1/22. I have fixed some misspellings in the original. Also 5/25/21.
292 Meddlesome Marjories CE 3/1/22 (law and order, Chautauqua), 3/8/22 (books), 4/19/22 (dead body). Diaries 2/11/22, 2/18/22 (wildcat), 3/5/22, 3/8/22, 3/25/22. Some legal documents spell Ross name Margery, though Lockhart and other Codyites used a variety of other spellings.
294 Pontoon Johnny CE 5/10/22 (Johnny, fantastical), 5/3/22 (factional), 2/5/24 (droll), 5/31/22 (Shepperd). Diaries 3/18/22, 4/13/22, 4/14/22 (no freer), 4/15/22 (need clothes), 5/8/22 (civil war), 5/12/22 (licking). Heralds quoted in Nicholas 73-4.
298 Gertrude Vanderbilt Whitney I am especially indebted to the work of Liza Nicholas. Also CE 7/12/22 (Schreyvogel), 1/4/22 (lard), 5/10/22 (Mecca); History of the Buffalo Bill Memorial Association in MS 58, Series VIA, Box 15, Folder 1, BBHC. Also Mary Jester Allen, Colonel Codys Dream of a Pioneer Center A Reality Annals of Wyoming, Jan. 1942.
301 August Republican primary CE 8/16/22, 8/23/22 (hind leg); Diaries 8/26/22 (whipped), 9/7/22 (restful), 9/8/22 (conditions). Simpsons progeny later became a Wyoming political dynasty.
303 Harry Wiard CE 10/18/22 (Arbuckle), 11/1/22 (newtonish), 11/8/22 , 1/10/23, 12/27/22 (retirement).
306 Mr. Paul Eldridge CE 11/29/22; Eldridge; Hicks 92, 568-572 (which reprints much of Eldridges paper); Boyett notes. Eldridge letter to CL, 9/19/48, CLC 1:9 (worship).
308 He was gay Hicks 333, 335, 357, 570. Again, I would have preferred to write this book without invading the late Eldridges privacy, but Hicks has already published the material outing him, and his sexuality will help us understand Lockharts all-consuming hatred for Frances Lane.
309 Tom Ames CE 2/14/23; Nicholas.
311 commute Boyett 1.
312 Having purchased the interest CE 3/7/23, 5/2/23 (kick), 4/18/23 (Debate), 5/20/23 (odd fee).
315 Scotty Sherrin and A.E. Carey CE 6/27/23 (nickel star), 7/4/23 (our attention), 7/11/23 (go your best). Furman 137-9 (quotes from Gopperts lawsuit), Boyett 42-6. Diaries 7/20/24, 12/31/24 (libel suit in the air).
319 Gop Gets Pop CE 7/11/23, 7/18/23, 9/19/23, 10/10/23, 10/17/23, 10/24/23, 11/21/23, 1/16/24. CL untitled memoir, CLC Box 1:10
322 Whitney statue of Buffalo Bill CE 3/7/23, 7/18/23, 10/17/23, 4/2/24. Nicholas, especially 77-86, discusses the statues meaning and the controversy of the horse.
325 George Huss Boyett 50, Furman 141, Diaries 11/19/24.
326 unveiling of Whitneys statue Nicholas is great here, and pointed me to the following quotes. CE 7/9/24 (shrine) 6/18/24 (Inspiration), 7/23/24 (preserving and Albright). Diaries 7/20/24 (George and hold the sack).
330 Me and My Record, CE 10/22/24 (war record and refused to print), 10/29/24. Boyett 33-6 quoting CE 8/27/24 (practically unknown) and 10/29/24 (camisole and I love babies)
332 gay ensemblage. CE 12/31/24, quoting the editor of the Lovell newspaper. Also 12/3/24 (Custer scout), 11/19/24 (Carey). Diaries 11/19/24 (Huss, have a car), 12/31/24 (Papa seemed glad), 2/1/25 (real heiress and writing feeling), 3/6/25 (crazy to start)
334 I am enjoying my car Diaries 5/25/25, 8/19/24 (impecunious), 3/6/25 (cowardice), 4/5/25 (God!).
337 Gop has another tantrum CE 4/22/25 (tantrum), 4/29/25 (Yuzl). Boyett 40-41.
337 Blanche Gokel Hicks 129 (ear-mark), 192-3 (reprints Herald story); Furman 135-6; Diaries 7/12/25; CE 6/24/25, 7/8/25, 7/15/25 (best horses).
340 bowl of mush Diaries 9/21/25
340 Victor H. Abrahamson CE 10/14/25, 10/21/25, 10/28/25 (fearlessness and fraternity), 11/4/25 (pungent), 6/6/23. Hicks 192. Diaries April - November 1925, including 10/16/25 (free), 10/17/25 (honyocker), and 11/13/25 (what I wanted).
345 Bad Pass Washington Irving, The Adventures of Captain Bonneville (1837) Chapter 23. Accessed 3/30/05 at: http://www.classicauthors.net/Irving/bonneville/bonneville23.html. Dryhead history in Bearss; Harvey; Cultural Landscapes Inventory. Layout and Davis Creeks have changed names several times in the last 100 years; for simplicitys sake, I use current names. Ruth Frenchs story, which may be exaggerated, is on Hicks 593.
348 housedress The description is from Eldridge, Woman on Horseback, p. 21, LFC. Eldridge did not visit the ranch until 1929, but the image of Lockhart in the kitchen is unlikely to have changed in three years. She describes the housework in her Diaries for June-July 1926; some are excerpted in Hicks 240-1.
349 the laboring class. Eldridge, Woman on Horseback, quoted in Hicks 570-1. The subsequent diary quotes are from 6/28/26 (Lou is working), 6/23/26 (my own log cabin), and 6/25/26 (triangle to hammer on). Spragg oral history 23-4 (baler).
351 rottenworse than the Herald. Diaries, 11/29/25. The subsequent diary quotes are from 1/22/26 (lying, bragging) and 1/26/26 (cheap crooks).
352 nervous and stupid Diaries, 5/1/26, quoted in Boyett 48. Boyetts same page also quotes the judges instructions; no trial transcript exists. Lockhart repeated the blackbird image in several of her late-life memoirs.
354 I am so uninterested Diaries, 10/23/26, quoted in Hicks 245. Also 11/3/26 (get back), quoted in Hicks 245.
355 Homestead Act Worster 338-40; Merrill 43-44; Gates 496-7 and 516-29. See also Rufus Snell oral history (2/22/2000, untranscribed), tape 2 side B, BCNRA.
358 log cabin Cultural Landscapes Inventory; miscellaneous NPS documents collected in the Lockhart Research Notebook, BCNRA. Culpin 20 says that Wassons homestead filing lists improvements including a six-room log house, barn, and two chicken-houses in addition to those listed here. But the NPS analyses suggest that Wassons claim was not truthful.
360 Countys three commissioners Diaries, 8/13/27 (only partially reprinted in Hicks 255, mistranscribed as 8/12).
362 The Barrys Hicks 208, 584-594; Bearss 383-7; Spragg ms. 118.
363 Be Jesus. Hicks 578 ($150), 581 (not his name), 592 (help himself), 668. Diaries 8/7/26 (I like Joe), 8/25/27 (first trick).
366 Bill Poole Diaries 5/3/28 (kiss), 3/28/28 (it seems strange), 5/11/28, 6/14/28 (for ten years), 6/16/28 (new chapter)
369 30-30 rifle Diaries 7/7/28 (Pooles version), 7/20/28 (Ericsons version). Shooting Affray at Wyoming Writers Ranch, Lovell Chronicle, undated, CLC 2:6, reprinted in Hicks 261.
371 largest cattle ranches Western Writer Adds Additional Acres to Large Ranch Holding, undated, unsourced clipping, CLC 2:6. Caroline Lockhart Adds to her Ranch Interests Dryhead, undated, unsourced clipping (though the language suggests a Cody paper), CLC 2:6. Diaries 1/13/29 (got the dough), 12/1/28 (full of ginger), 12/16/28 (Philadelphia).
372 headstrong, Diaries 2/23/29, 2/25/29. Subsequent quotes in this section are from the same source.
374 more than love Diaries 6/27/29, 6/29/29.
376 rid of the skunk Diaries 4/21/29.
377 Fencing Claude St. John testimony, Lockhart homestead case (Federal Land Office, Billings, Mont., 1933, Record Group 49, National Archives), LFC box 2 folder 4. Diaries 10/2/28, 5/13/29, 5/23/29, 8/16/29, 9/2/29 (dirty socks). Hicks 279-284.
379 Dave Good Dave Good, Cody Oldtimer Dies Monday CE 4/15/65; Hicks 232-3, 284-9, 572. Diaries 9/26/29 (we talk).
380 Two Dog Diaries 11/19/29, quoted on Hicks 286, and 12/1/32 (calculation), on Hicks 311. Johnson testimony, Lockhart homestead case, LFC box 2 folder 4.
382 I cant stand this, Diaries 2/16/30, 12/26/29.
386 impotent Diaries 2/17/30.
386 Clarence Curen Diaries 7/25/30, 7/26/30, 6/29/31 (Lane), 9/15/31 (annoyed as hell). CL, letter to Fred Johnson, 5/15/34, quoted in Culpin 25 and Hicks 583 (not well balanced). Hicks 220-1, 306-8, 578. Some sources spell the name Curens, but note the gravestone pictured on Hicks 230.
387 Hank Lane Spragg ms. 139-40. I have fixed some misspellings and standardized verb tenses in the unedited draft. Hicks 220-1; Trails and Tales 662.
389 serviceberries Diaries 7/25/30 (Lockharts account, including the dialogue, and ridiculous). Curen testimony, Lockhart homestead case, LFC box 2 folder 4 (Curens account). Lockhart always spelled the word savisberry, but I have used todays standard spelling.
390 The American Language Mencken 270; Diaries 3/8/30. Oddly, given that Mencken cites her explicitly as a fiction writer, the example he references is nonfiction, a 1918 Denver Post article. Later Eldridge would claim that Menckens text also referred to Lockhart as one of the four best humorists in America. (See Hicks 571.) But it does not, and given that Mencken scholars can find no other trace of Lockhart in his papers, we have to assume that Eldridge was mistaken.
391 Cimarron Diaries 4/2/31, 8/15/30 (bad judgement).
392 stroke Diaries 10/15/31 (note that Hicks has mistranscribed the incident). Her one short story after 1926 was Not a Redeeming Trait, in Popular, 1929.
392 18 Karat CL, Old WestAnd New. The picturesque quote is on p. 212. Also John Clayton, New West is an old concept, Denver Post 2/4/2001; Yates Lockhart 37-40.
397 my old form Diaries 1/22/32, 2/6/32 (inspired), 2/14/32 (zest), 2/7/32 (climax), 2/6/32 (Cabin). Obviously the novel was nothing like Uncle Toms Cabin, in either quality or impact. Even by the time it was published she understood that, and she would likely be furious at me for excavating such an embarrassing quote.
398 swallowed my pride Diaries, 4/30/32; A. Dudley Gardner, Continuity and Change: The Great Depression [in Wyoming] accessed at http://www.wwcc.cc.wy.us/wyo_hist/Depression.1.htm on 4/12/2005.
401 slick fat cattle Diaries 7/1/32, 9/9/32 (souring). Phelps had sold the Dryhead ranch, which was now going by the name of the Antlers Ranch.
402 Cowboys Luck! Diaries 10/5/32, 10/16/32 (Old WestAnd New), 10/27/32 (stupid), 2/4/33 (hardest).
403 Guy Derry Diaries 3/11/33 (seal), 2/11/33 (horsethief), 2/24/33 (relinquishment).
405 Miss or Mrs. Spear Diaries 5/20/33.
405 New York Times NYT Literary Supplement, 11/9/33, p. 776, LFC. Diaries 4/12/33 (rigor).
407 culminating tragedy Diaries 6/9/33, 7/4/35 quoted on Hicks 350 (butcher), 6/16/33 (anyone but Dave), 7/8/33 quoted on Hicks 314 (little man), 8/13/33 quoted on Hicks 317 (beneath me), 8/24/33 (terrible winter), 3/23/33 (whatever that is), 8/26/33 (drive him away).
408 homestead hearing Lockhart homestead case, LFC box 2 folder 4. Diaries 10/20/33; Culpin 19-23.
412 My job is Quoted on Culpin 19. The quote is actually from a letter she wrote on appeal restating her case.
413 spent a single night Diaries 6/8/33. LeFors is quoted on Culpin 23.
414 lantern-jawed thief Diaries 12/22/33, 3/4/34 (they will learn), 3/15/34 (skeered).
416 Sophistication set upon Single page of a letter enclosed in the diary for 3/28/34. Its not signed or dated, but the context makes clear that Eldridge is the author.
416 dirty breaks Diaries 1/3/35, quoted in Hicks 333, and 1/22/35 (let out), quoted in Hicks 335.
417 greenest dude Diaries 5/28/34, 5/5/34.
418 shirks, incompetent, or disloyal. Diaries 7/22/34, 12/15/34 (go off sore; in January he offered another man a $20 severance), 9/23/34 (sell cattle; her debt to the Regional fluctuated from $5,000 to $8,400), 11/27/34 (masterpiece).
420 Ed Pickering Spragg ms. 129, 146.
421 merely colorable T.A. Walters, first assistant secretary, Department of Interior, Adverse Hearings Dismissed report, 3/12/36, LFC box 7. Colorable here means intended to deceive. Hicks 671 (Morley).
423 hay at $10 a ton Diaries 9/17/36; Hicks 367-378. The other man is referred to as Tuffy (no last name given); presumably its not Tuffy Abbott, since she was by now referring to Abbott as Packrat.
425 they want to Diaries 4/26/37.
427 Ben Taylor Diaries 8/18/37 (like a tick), 9/2/37 (hoodlum) 10/18/37 (born criminal), 11/22/37 (hobbled his horse).
431 regeneration through violence Numerous scholars have written about the meaning of the frontier; again Im indebted to Richard Slotkin. This phrase is the title of the first book in Slotkins four-part history of the frontier.
433 weak of me Diaries 5/12/38, 12/29/37 ($1), 1/25/38 (feel lost), 10/15/38 (peddlers trash). Hicks 594 (Ruth).
435 Judy St. Clair CL, That Wicked Woman, unpublished 333-page manuscript in CLC box 1:10. Lockharts papers include at least two versions of this novel, undated and with various titles, and its not clear what she actually sent to Maule. But this is clearly the manuscript she was working on in the late 1930s and 40s, so we can safely assume that the Maule manuscript was at least similar.
437 can I do it? Diaries 5/31/39. Spirit of Old West Dying Fast, Says Montana Woman, Author of Western Stories undated, unsourced (though apparently Billings), CLC 2:6 (most finished).
438 shot at her Hicks 485, 672; Oscar Thompson interview. Given Lockharts bad eyesight, Im skeptical that it was a gunshot directed at her. The bad eyesight would also be a good reason to stop riding.
441 Lockharts cooks Spragg oral history 10, where Hazel is transcribed as Ada; Ive changed it to match Spraggs manuscript and Lockharts diaries. Spragg ms. 130-1 (birthday), 133 (menial labor, damn lie), 129 (percolating), 142 (looking after), 144 (Chinaman). Spraggs manuscript notes that Chinaman was a common reference in those days and he does not mean to be derogatory. I have fixed some misspellings in the unedited draft. Spragg was not related to the Wyoming writer Mark Spragg.
444 downright tight Spragg ms. 116, 144, 114 (proved my feelings), 147 (plain BS, turmoil). Spragg oral history 3 (agitated)
445 Oscar and Dick Thompson Hicks 538-543, 557, 677-8; Oscar and Jane Thompson interview, 10/18/2004; Diaries 1/9/42 (sissies), 1/30/42 (contented).
449 Laura Mauch Local Ranch Woman Announce Engagement of Her Employees 12/13/44 unsourced, CLC 2:6. (Hicks 558-9 reprints it from CE; other papers ran it as well. Though not bylined, its obviously written by Lockhart.) CL, letter to Mrs. Kerper, 12/22/44 (fixed, Ouch), CLC 2:1; letters to Jay Adler, 9/24/44 (guinea pig, zoot suit) and 10/20/44 (saddle rope), JAP.
453 paralyzed in the hind quarters CL to Jay Adler, 11/21/45, JAP.
453 remote homesteading Raban.
455 Sterling J.P. Lawrie visits Cad Lockheart on Montana ranch Sterling (IL) Gazette, 8/25/41, CLC 2:6. Diaries 2/24/40 quoted in Hicks 502 (Grace). As noted earlier, census records and other independent sources indicate that Grace was incorrect; Lockhart was indeed born in 1871.
455 Dryhead News Dryhead News, various undated, unsourced clippings, CLC 2:6.
457 armed truce CL to Jay Adler, 9/9/48, 9/23/48, 10/8/48 (exaggerated), 12/28/48 (indispensable), JAP. Craig in Jordan, MT, to Adler, 2/20/48, JAP.
460 hate to sell CL to Dorothea Nebel, 8/8/49, LFC. CL to Jay Adler 9/8/49, 10/16/49, JAP.
462 Bud DeVoss CL to Adler 7/24/50, 11/2/50 (steam heat), JAP. David Dominick interview.
464 picket-line CL to Adler 11/18/51, 12/55 (chore). The key is reprinted in the 2003 edition of The Lady Doc.
466 From Here to Eternity CL to Nebel 6/13/51, 1/18/52 (conceit); Sisters of the Sage 30 (Nicks nightcap).
467 invested in CL to Adler 2/56.
468 Indian keepsakes CL to Adler 10/20/46 (Smith), 6/28/51 (Plenticoos), undated but likely summer 1955 (Other Buffalo, grafters), 4/5/54 (McCarthy), JAP.
469 Crowders daughter Sue Telephone interview with Caroline Sue Dowling, 10/26/2004.
470 wasted work CL to Adler, undated, 4/5/54 (spare time) JAP.
474 those of the townsfolk CL, undated, untitled memoir beginning Almost 50 years later, Box 2:1, CLC, p. 25. Lockhart used the term morphodite, a comic slang pronunciation of hermaphrodite; todays preferred term is intersexed. I have fixed some other misspellings in the unedited draft.
477 Hopalong Cassidy CL to Adler, 5/55, JAP; CL to Nebel undated, LFC. The Devils Playground, 1946. We dont know which Hoppy adventure Lockhart was watching, but in almost every feature hes dressed the same, laughs that laugh, and at some point says, Let me introduce myself, Im Hopalong Cassidy.
480 Fourth of July parade Jack Richard photograph in CLC, reprinted in Furman and Hicks 235.
481 dying released her Sylvia Crowder to Jay Adler, 7/29/62, JAP; Furman 165.
481 convenient peak Kathryn Wright, Forever with mountains, winds and water, undated Billings Gazette clipping, CLC 1:9.
482 out of print The Lady Doc was reissued in 2003. The CLCs second accession was purchased in about 2001.
484 Lucille Patrick CE 3/21/84.
484 Pete Spragg Spragg ms. 134 (testimony), 150 (Little Pete, whose real name was Gene); Spragg oral history 40 (successful), 38 (horses). I have fixed some misspellings in the unedited drafts.
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